As discussed in question 48 there is a wide variety of training provided by different actors at bilateral and multilateral levels. However, the assessor did not find evidence that there is training for military commanders at all levels that address specifically corruption issues during deployment. Nevertheless, the lack of evidence does not mean that these issues may not be discussed as part of a larger curriculum.
Even though no evidence has been found that there is an explicit program directly addressing corruption as part of military or police training, officers are trained in general ethics and in line with the Military Penal Code which specifically addresses corruption. For example, Article 228 states that officers found guilty of corruption, theft or general crime can be dismissed, demoted or imprisoned. The Code provides for a judiciary military police that reports to the Ministry of Defence (Article 46). They are charged with finding and following up all infractions of the law (Article 47) at all levels of the armed forces (Article 48) (1).
Furthermore, even though there is no systematic approach to fighting corruption in the defence sector, national authorities at the higher level publically claimed their engagement to tackle the issue. For instance, principal outlines of the security and defence policy of the Presidential Renaissance Programme for 2016-2021 include fighting against corruption in the security and defence institutions as part of improving the security governance strategy (2). Therefore, the Niger government welcomes different initiatives coming from national and international institutions. In September 2016 the Abdou Moumouni University of Niger, with the support of Belgium, inaugurated the first in its kind Master in Security and Culture of Peace designed essentially for Niger military and civil officers (3). It provides in-depth training on a vast range of security and defence issues where, according to interviewees, corruption – as being directly related to the illicit circulation of drugs, arms or human trafficking – is often debated in class, even if it is not part of the curriculum as a separate subject.
The European Union also provides training to Nigerien civil and military servants. Launched in 2012, EUCAP Sahel-Niger provides advice and training to support the Nigerien authorities in strengthening their security capabilities. It contributes to the development of an “integrated, coherent, sustainable, and human rights-based approach among the various Nigerien security agencies in the fight against terrorism and organised crime” (4). The objective of EUCAP Sahel is “improving the efficiency of the regional mixed command posts to improve the response to crises and the interoperability of security forces; collecting and sharing intelligence between those forces; developing forensic science expertise; training the municipal police of the Agadez region; improving HR management systems; improving teaching capacity at the security forces’ training centers and schools; and ensuring that the armed forces act on a sound legal basis in their mission to combat terrorism and trafficking” (4). According to interviewees, training provided by CAP Sahel does not explicitly include “corruption” as a separate course either. However, invited experts regularly discuss and actively debate issues of corruption as being directly related to the illicit circulation of drugs, arms or human trafficking.
Finally, as part of bilateral cooperation with the USA, by signing the Joint Country Action Plan (JCAP) in October 2015 Niger engaged in the Security Governance Initiative. The objective of the programme is to contribute to improving decision-making processes that determine the allocation of human, material, and financial resources for the security sector as well as enhancing human resourcing procedures (5). This implies addressing corruption too. France, being engaged in the countries of the Sahel region (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger) with the ongoing Barkhane Operation also participates in regular training of the Niger military on general ethics. Finally, the International Committee of the Red Cross which plays an important role in Niger, also regularly provides training for Nigerien military in International Humanitarian Law where issues of corruption, even if they are not addressed directly are discussed.