Q39.

Are pay rates and allowances for civilian and military personnel openly published?

39a. Pay rates

Score

SCORE: 50/100

Assessor Explanation

Assessor Sources

39b. Allowances

Score

SCORE: 50/100

Assessor Explanation

Assessor Sources

Compare scores by country

Please view this page on a larger screen for the full stats.

Relevant comparisons

No specific information on the pay rates could be found.

The 2006 Statute of Military Personnel provides some information on the remuneration of soldiers, but it is general and does not outline any specific rates. According to Art. 52, members of the armed forces are entitled to remuneration consisting of a salary, which is fixed according to rank, seniority in rank and service. The article also says that benefits are fixed by regulations. However, no reference to another regulation/law/order could be found in the statute, which could lead to an openly published table of pay rates (1). There also is the Code for Military Pensions, but it also does not provide any information on exact rates (4). Also, no information could be found in the military magazine (5).

Art. 52 also says that any general measure affecting the remuneration of civil servants shall be extended to military personnel. Yet, these measures are “subject to the necessary adjustments” (Art. 52). Presidential Decree No. 07-304 (2007) outlines the salary index grid and the compensation scheme for civil servants. It lists different categories and echelons of the enumerations for civil officers; no specific pay rates are given. The decree does not make any reference to the defence sector. It might be possible that it applies to civilians working in the defence sector, but there is no clear evidence of that (2). According to information from the Ministry of Finance on the evolution of the compensation system for civil servants, there has been no change in recent years (3), which could have likewise had an impact on the remuneration of the military personnel, according to Art. 52 mentioned above.

No specific information on allowances could be found during the research.

Art. 52 of the Statute of Military Personnel only says that allowances are related to the nature of the function performed and particular constraints, such as place of assignment and the risks associated with it (1). If a member of the armed forces is suspended for serious misconduct, pending a final decision on his case, he shall continue to receive his pay, but he should not receive the allowances inherent in the performance of his duties (2). Allowances and full salary are also paid for a period of twelve months when soldiers are preparing to return to civilian life (3). There is also the Code for Military Pensions, but it does not provide any information on exact rates (4). Furthermore, no information could be found in the military magazine (6).

The only other information with regards to benefits in the armed forces that could be found is from a newspaper report indicating that the Ministry of Defence had raised the values of loans for military personnel to acquire apartments in 2016 (5).

Pay scales for public servants, including the military, are approved by presidential decree and published in the official gazette. The last updated pay scales were published in June of 2017 (before that in 2014), including personnel of the armed forces, Ministry of Interior, and domestic and external intelligence services [1]. Salary scales include brackets for all ranks. No indications are provided on how individual pay is calculated, and allowances are listed in summary form for senior officials only.

Pay scales published in the official gazette include allowances only in summary form and for senior officials only (see 39A).

Pay rates for personnel in the MoD, both civilian and military are not available to the public (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7).

No information on allowances is available publicly (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7).

There is no available information on the salaries of civilian and military personnel. According to one Reuters (June 4, 2017) report, “A government spokesman declined to comment on the amount of the salaries” [1].

Although allowances of military and civilian personnel are often mentioned publicly including amounts, eligibility and calculation methods are not often mentioned [1].

In 2015, the former Minister of Defence Alain Mego Ngoh said senior officers who embezzled allowances made for military personnel would be tried in military courts but nothing was said about the amount embezzled, nor was it specified how much each member of personnel was due [1]. Even when soldiers went on the streets in Yaounde asking for unpaid allowances for the United Nations peacekeeping mission in the Central African Republic (Reuters, 2018), details of these allowances were not made public [2].

The pay rates are not officially published on the MoD website or facilitated by the government. However, the pay rates are sometimes available in a cursory, abbreviated or unreliable form by official sources.
As there is no detailed breakdown of pay rates available via the MoD or the government, the information appears to be leaked and then published by Ivorian media, including by the opposition daily “Aujourd’hui”, which disclosed the MoD pay rates on January 9, 2018.

No information on salary levels (grilles salariales) is available on the MoD website. However, the MoD website does contain a dedicated page showing a breakdown of the existing military ranks (army, navy, air force) (1). In January 2018, the website of Diaspora Côte d’Ivoire, citing the opposition daily “Aujourd’hui”, published the 2018 salaries for members of the Armed Forces according to rank. The salary increases were in response to the soldier mutinies of 2017, the website stated. Several other sources pointed to the daily “Aujourd’hui” as the source of the leaked information (2). Previously, in December 2017, the Côte d’Ivoire News portal had also cited the opposition daily “Aujourd’hui” as the source of the information on MoD pay rates pointing out that the government had not denied that the leaks were false, thus supposedly vouching for the leaked pay rates (3). The article stated:

“In the hope that Ivorians do not find out the origin of the funds that were used to pay the mutineers and especially the legal provisions that made it possible to pay this important sum to officials who “rebelled”, please find attached the salary grid in the Ivorian army. This list published last January by the daily “Aujourd’hui” has so far not been denied by the military hierarchy” (3).

Neither the government nor the MoD publishes pay rates, apparently due to political liabilities. However, information on pay rates is leaked to Ivorian media and is therefore available.

As in 39A, the government and MoD do not publish the pay rates or special allowances for military and civilian personnel. No news item was uploaded to the MoD website (tab for “Actualités”) regarding special allowances (1). This type of information on special allowances has not been leaked by the opposition daily “Aujourd’hui”. But during the soldier uprisings in Bouaké in January 2018, Jeune Afrique mentioned that the non-payment of family allowances (allocations familiales) was one of the soldiers’ grievances (2).

In December 2017, the government agreed to pay 15 million FCFA for each of the 991 members of the military who had applied for a special early retirement scheme by end-2017. This was part of the government’s concessions following the soldier uprisings (mutineries) that took place in Bouaké and other towns in January and May 2017. At a ceremony in Abidjan, Minister of Defence Hamed Bakayoko handed out the checks to those present at the ceremony. All 991 officers were subsequently permanently deleted from the MoD payroll (3).

“During this launching ceremony, 10 of the 991 soldiers, including 3 officers, 634 non-commissioned officers and 354 non-commissioned members of voluntary rank, symbolically received a check for 15 million FCFA each. The 881 other soldiers who had a favorable opinion for this voluntary retirement, will also each receive a check of 15 million FCFA before December 31, 2017, by which time they should all be permanently removed from the Ivorian Army” (3).

The soldier allowances are thought to be one of the sources of soldier grievances in the January 2017 uprisings in Bouaké and other towns. However, as with pay rates, no information is publicly available on special allowances.

Pay rates for civilian and military personnel are not openly published. However, rates of increases are usually issued by law or presidential decree and therefore made public (1), (2).

There is no information published publicly or internally about pay rates or allowance as this information is considered confidential data (1), (2). Allowances for civilian and military personnel are not openly published by the Ministry of Defence or the Ministry of Finance or any other official platform.

Pay rates for the MOD’s employees are published in the annual budget, but only in a highly aggregated form. For instance, according to the 2018 MOD’s budget, GH¢746.558m was expended for employees in 2016 including gratuities (GH¢100.304m) (1). As for 2017, actual expenditure on the 30th of September stood at GH¢566.006m.

Information on pay rates for personnel involved in peacekeeping operations has been made publicly available recently (March 2017), following the decision to increase the daily pay from USD 31 to USD 35 (2).

No information is made publicly available on the allowances in the 2018 Ministry of Defence budget (1), (2).

Pay rates are published for both civilian and military personnel. However, they are only released in their abstract forms. Sometimes, the bonuses are also published. “Monthly bonuses”, which vary for each officer depending on his unity and level of seniority, are not published. [1,2,3]

Similar to pay rates, allowances for military and civil personnel of the armed forces are also openly discussed in Jordan. Article 15 of the Armed Forces Law No. 3 of 2007, published on the armed forces official website, lists allowances and privileges granted to armed forces personnel [1]. The list of rights, as stipulated in the article, include (1) salaries and bonuses, (2) retirement salaries and disability allowances, (3) housing loans, (4) scholarships for children of armed forces personnel, (5) health insurance, (6) benefits of the military association’s services, (7) privileges granted according to rank and position, and (8) incentives, material and moral rewards. These allowances were initially granted to military personnel in the armed forces, however, in 2018, these were extended to include civilian personnel of the armed forces [2]. Based on the law and on information available to the media, there is criteria for eligibility and calculation methods for allowances for armed forces personnel, but there is no evidence of the criteria being publicly available. For instance, in 2018 the armed forces announced via local news, the benefits and privileges for families of martyrs, or families of armed forces personnel who pass away while on duty. The announcement included details about the eligibility criteria and calculation methods. This demonstrates that eligibility criteria exist, but they are not fully available to the public. Sporadic information is available on different media outlets. T’here is evidence to support that allowances for civilian and military personnel are published, but there is not much information available about criteria for eligibility and calculation methods.

No information on pay rates for civilian or military staff is available. Some journalists and lawmakers gain access to them but the state does not make them officially available to the public. (1)

No information on the allowances of civil or military personnel is made available to the public by the Government.

In July 2017, the Parliament passed a salary scale law public administration workers and military personnel (1). The law is available online on the Lebanese University’s Center for Research and Studies in Legal Informatics that provides an online platform for current and old legal documents. However, the tables disaggregating the salary increase per ranks and grades are found on public media outlets and not on official government websites. Pay rates for all civilian and military personnel are published disaggregated by rank (2). According to Art. 101 of the National Defence Law, state employees provisions apply to the civilians working under the Ministry of Defence (3).

The decrees indicating the allowances and its criteria for civilian and military personnel are published online. As previously mentioned in 39A, civilians at the MoD are subject to the provisions of the civil servants. Thus the military personnel’s allowances (1) and civilian allowances (2) are published in two different decrees.

There is an established system for salaries and allowances for civil servants and military officials. While some salary figures are published, they are incomplete and poorly disaggregated. For instance, as part of the current government’s military reforms, the Ministry of Defence has increased soldiers’ salaries by about 15%. Each soldier now earns between 75,000 and 100,000 CFA per month, in addition to a risk bonus/allowance of 1,200 CFA for every day spent as part of an active military operation.¹ Members of the armed forces also now receive subsidised accommodation and social security cover, something they didn’t previously get.¹
However, the assessor was unable to find a clear and current breakdown of salaries for more senior military figures. A source from 2007 reveals that at the time an army general earned 236,840 CFA per month, not including bonuses and allowances.² The article provides the index number for a seemingly comprehensive series of ranks and titles within the security forces, but it does not offer corresponding salaries.² Given the dated nature of this information, the subsequent change of government, the dramatic events that have since ensued and the current government’s reforms of the armed forces, this data is deemed to be inaccurate for 2018.
Moreover, the assessor has found no breakdown of pay grades within the civil service more generally from within the past ten years. In 2014, the government reformed the salary structure for the civil service. Local media reported the job categorisations along with their corresponding indices, but did not convey actual salary information.³ The government’s own website does not contain any relevant information relating to civil servants’ salaries.⁴

Publicly available information relating to allowances for civilian and military personnel is scant. Decree n° 96.16/P.RM provides superficial information on military allowances. Members of the armed forces obtain a risk bonus/allowance of 1,200 CFA for every day spent as part of an active military operation.¹ They also receive subsidised accommodation and social security cover, something they didn’t previously get.¹
However, the assessor has found no information specifying the precise amounts or eligibility criteria for these benefits 2,3. Nor did the assessor find any information about the allowances available to members of the civil service or how any such scheme operates. The government’s own website does not contain any relevant information relating to civil servants’ remuneration.⁴

Information about pay rates for civilian and military personnel are available in an unreliable manner in discussion forums as well as in a very vague way in articles (1)(2)(3)(4). In both cases this information is out-of-date (pre-2015). This implies that information may be available locally (ie by physically visiting military barracks or military information offices, or paper versions of these documents might be handed out to members of the military) but does not confirm whether the pay rate per rank is consistent regardless of the individual.

The inconsistent, outdated and unofficial character of the pay rates disclosed suggests a lack of transparency at all levels of seniority within the Moroccan armed forces. Interviewees suspect that the lack of transparency concerning pay rates, especially concerning senior officers, may lead to and result from the fact that the former receive financial and non-financial advantages in return for their loyalty to the regime. There is no regular update pattern and no information as to how frequently this information is updated.

Information about allowances for civilian and military personnel are available in an unreliable manner in discussion forums, as well as in a very vague way in articles (1)(2)(3)(4). In both cases this information is dated (pre-2015). This implies that information may be available locally but does not confirm whether allowances per rank are consistent regardless of the individual.

The inconsistent, outdated and unofficial character of the allowances disclosed suggests a lack of transparency at all levels of seniority within the Moroccan armed forces. Interviewees suspect that the lack of transparency concerning allowances, especially concerning senior officers, may lead to and result from the fact that the former receive financial and non-financial advantages in return for their loyalty to the regime.

Pay rates for personnel working in security and defence are available in service publications (1). While no information is made available to the general public, the system for salaries and allowances is clearly established. It is determined either on the basis of the category to which the civil servant belongs or on his/her longevity in office (2,3), according to legal provisions (4,5).  

Allowances are well-defined and based on clearly stated criteria (familial allowance, number of years in office (1,2)). For “zones de mise en garde”, that is zones considered to be unsecure (for example, the Diffa region and Tillabery) there are special allowances but with an equal rate disregarding grade (3,4,5).

Although the Consolidated Armed Forces Salary Structure (CONAFSS) was made public in previous years, it is not regularly updated, or easily accessible to the public in a detailed and comprehensive way. Pay rates are available but they are not detailed as they do not provide information to the public on benefits and other emoluments. This renders the information partial and unreliable, as the rules of their application are not publicly available (1).

Information on allowances is not publicly available (1).

There is no openly published information on pay rates for civilian or military personnel. No information on relevant the institution’s websites was found on minimum wage in the public sector (1), (2), (3). Salaries are decided by the council of ministers and then announced by the minister, there is no standard minimum wage in the public sector only in the private sector following Royal Decree 223/2013, stating 235 rials as the minimum wage for Omani workers in addition to a 100 rials allowance (4), (5). Public sector salaries are dependent on ministries, no information as available on civilian and military personnel (2), (6). The Omani Labour Law of 2012 does not apply to military or security personnel who are governed by military service law (Royal Decree 110/2011 and 16/2018) (4), (7). Pay rates and salaries are not published and are not available to the public. The rates are usually available upon request by personnel from the financial department and their respective units only (8), (9).

No information on allowances regarding military and civilian personnel is made publicly available. The allowances vary, and they are not made available to the majority of the units as they are considered confidential financial information (1), (2). Neither the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Finance, nor the eGovernment portal has any information regarding allowances for civilian or military personnel (3), (4). As outlined above in the 2012 Labour Act provisions were made for allowance for private sector Omani employees; however, no details are available regarding public sector allowances (5).

Pay rates for all civilian and military personnel are published in the official journal of the PA as well as in the Military Service Law disaggregated by rank. Summarised information is made available to the general public (1), (2). The eligibility and calculation methods are also available.

Allowances for all civilian and military personnel are published in the official journal of the PA as well as in the Military Service Law (1). These allowances can increase and decrease based on the rank as well as the type of the job (i.e. overtime or operations).

Pay rates are published only for selected civilian and military personnel. [1] Section three of Law No. 31 (2006) of the Military Service Act addresses salaries and promotions, and states that salaries and promotions can be changed through an Emiri Decree. [2] The same law includes a section on salary scales based on positions, and promotions, in addition to the maximum number of allowable promotions. This, however, does not include salary scales for defence personnel in high ranking positions. Human Resources Law No. 15 (2016), issued through an Emiri Decree, introduced some changes to salary scales for governmental positions. [3,4] The same law, however, excludes the defence and military sectors, and the salaries of high-ranking Government personnel, such as ministers. Salaries within the defence sector are considered to be the highest among governmental positions, however, there are no further details provided particularly about those personnel in high ranking positions. [5] The salary scale for the defence sector is published in a basic salary format, but not in detail. [6] However, there are exceptions, for instance when the Emir or the Minister of Defence issue decrees that increase military personnel salaries. These decrees are not predictable.

The only document publicly available about pay rates for military personnel is Law No. 31 (2006). Articles 21 and 22 of Law No. 31 (2006) of the Military Service Act, mention allowances such as housing, transportation, social security and other benefits determined by the ‘specialised authorities.’ [1,2] Other than this mention, there are no details about eligibility criteria, or different allowances based on seniority. Bonuses and allowances are published annually on the official gazette of the MoD and MoF. [3] In many cases, such information could be printed publicly, but newspapers and websites refrain from doing so as salaries are not of particular interest in Qatar, especially as most of the defence sector employees are Qatari nationals.

The government does not publish detailed information on pay rates or salaries for civilian or military employees either on government websites, recruitment webpages or the local media. According to our sources, this information is considered confidential, and employees are not allowed to share it outside their units (1), (2).

According to our sources, fixed allowances (bonuses for accommodation, cars, etc.) for senior commanders are not published; however, allowance and bonus increases by royal decrees are published for the public (1), (2). The government occasionally announces pay raises and bonuses for public sector employees, including military personnel (3). For example, in January 2018, local media outlets reported that King Salman ordered a SAR 1,000 monthly allowance for all government staff, including military employees, for a period of one year (4). However, the researcher found no publicly available information on specific salary structures or methods of calculation for these salaries. The government does occasionally release broad figures on the amount it spends on civil service salaries; however, these are overall figures and exclude the include military and security sectors (5), (6).

Pay rates for all civilian and military personnel are taken under the form of Governmental Decrees and published in the Official Gazette of the Tunisian Republic, disaggregated by rank. Information about pay rates of military personnel is also published in the official gazette (for example Décret n° 2007-2408 du 2 Octobre 2007 modifiant le décret n° 79-96 du 11 janvier 1979 fixant la solde des militaires non classés dans la grille indiciaire de la fonction publique et le régime de l’alimentation dans l’armée) (1). The official gazette is available online (2).

Allowances for all civilian and military personnel are openly published, including criteria for eligibility and calculation methods. For example, Governmental Decree n°767-2018, dated 13 September 2018, concerning the establishment and adjustment of conditions for the allocation of a “special grant” gives the amount of the allowance disaggregated by military rank (1). Many other legal texts concerning allowances are published in the Official Gazette (2, 3). The majority of pay rates and allowances for military personnel are published. However, some texts were not published like Decree 225-2011, dated the 22 October 2011. (4)

Research has revealed that salary scales and pay rates are published only for selected civilian and military personnel. The official websites of the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Finance (1), (2) do not include any information related to pay rates of military and civilian personnel. The salaries are not unified and do not represent reality as they vary from time to time based on royal decrees. High-ranking officers salaries are never published and may receive their salaries from the Crown Prince’s Office and not the Ministry of Defence (3), (4).

There is no publicly available information on allowances for military and civilian personnel in the UAE. It has been established that the official websites of the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Finance (1), (2) do not include any information related to pay rates of military and civilian personnel, neither do they include information about allowances. Research shows that some platforms published information about salary scales and allowances for the UAE police, rather than the defence sector. According to an article published in the Khaleej Times, the police and security forces in UAE ‘have [a] telephone allowance and periodic bonuses’ as well (3). Officers at the rank of brigadier and above can get an annual bonus equal to six per cent of their base salary. Additionally, force members are also entitled to special bonuses with a minimum of Dh500 to Dh20,000 monthly (3). However, no information as such is available either for the civilian or military personnel within the armed forces or the Ministry of Defence (4), (5).

Country Sort by Country 39a. Pay rates Sort By Subindicator 39b. Allowances Sort By Subindicator
Algeria 0 / 100 0 / 100
Angola 75 / 100 0 / 100
Burkina Faso 0 / 100 0 / 100
Cameroon 0 / 100 25 / 100
Cote d'Ivoire 0 / 100 0 / 100
Egypt 0 / 100 0 / 100
Ghana 25 / 100 0 / 100
Jordan 25 / 100 50 / 100
Kuwait 0 / 100 0 / 100
Lebanon 100 / 100 100 / 100
Mali 25 / 100 25 / 100
Morocco 25 / 100 0 / 100
Niger 75 / 100 100 / 100
Nigeria 25 / 100 0 / 100
Oman 0 / 100 0 / 100
Palestine 100 / 100 100 / 100
Qatar 50 / 100 50 / 100
Saudi Arabia 0 / 100 25 / 100
Tunisia 100 / 100 100 / 100
United Arab Emirates 25 / 100 0 / 100

With thanks for support from the UK Department for International Development and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs who have contributed to the Government Defence Integrity Index.

Transparency International Defence & Security is a global programme of Transparency International based within Transparency International UK.

Privacy Policy

UK Charity Number 1112842

All rights reserved Transparency International Defence & Security 2020