Do national defence and security institutions have beneficial ownership of commercial businesses? If so, how transparent are details of the operations and finances of such businesses?
31a. Extent of commercial ventures
Tanzania score: 0/100
Defence institutions have ownership (or are believed to have ownership) of commercial businesses that are major enterprises, or constitute more than 10% of the defence budget.
Defence and security institutions have some ownership of commercial businesses, but totaling less than 10% of the defence budget.
Defence and security institutions do not own commercial businesses of any significant scale. (Equivalent to 1% of the defence budget or less.)
The sector does have some commercial interests.     Specifically, the defence sector has a total of three huge commercial ventures that it runs.
The first commercial venture is called SUMAJKT.  This venture supports projects that are capable of production so that it can produce more and for profit, and thus support the Government in reducing the use of running JKT activities. The organisation generates products and provides quality services to the community especially in various activities including: agriculture, livestock and fisheries, Construction and Engineering, Protection Service, Rescue and Firemen service, Hygiene Service (Cleaning and Fumigation), Insurance Service (SUMAJKT Insurance and Broker), Service Broker (SUMAJKT Auction Mart), Freight and transportation Services Bandarini (SUMAJKT), Clearing and Forwarding Service, Food services, conference halls and festivals, Sale and distribution of agricultural tools with its jewellery (SUMAJKT Agri-Machinery).
Industries that produce various brands are: Water Factory (Independence Peak), Ushrecovery Factory (NS Garments), Furniture Factory (Changombe Furniture), Shoe Factory (SUMAJKT Leather Products), Grain processing plant (Mlale and Mapinga), and the popular SUMAJKT security company.
Another commercial wing of the defence sector is called TATC-NYUMBU,  popularly referred to as the Nyumbu organisation. It was officially established on December 14, 1985 with the aim of being a special facility in the country for researching and developing technology innovations. Since its inception, the organisation has focused on conducting research on vehicles, engineering and building infrastructure. Areas in which the organisation has been successful include research and manufacture of agricultural tools such as the hemp Processing machine sisal fiber processing plant, water-pumping Machine ‘Water Pump’ as well as the ‘Power tillers’ and tractor-like agricultural machines. Other machines include Interlocking brick machines, which are used to make the cheapest bricks. The third and last commercial venture in the defence sector is called Mzinga Agency.  The Mzinga agency was organised in collaboration between Tanzania and the People’s Republic of China in 1971 as a project under the military headquarters, MMJ. From September 13, 1974, the project was changed to be a public organisation. It is notable that the proceeds from these ventures are not usually reported publically and thus it cannot be stated with any confidence that they make up more or less than 10% of the total budget in the defence sector.
1. Ministry of Defence and National Services, https://www.modans.go.tz/.
2. SUMAJKT, http://www.sumajkt.go.tz/biasha.php.
3.. “Mzinga Co-operation”, Ministry of Defence and National Services, https://www.wipo.int/tisc/en/search/details.jsp?id=5809
4. “TATC-NYUMBU”, Ministry of Defence and National Services, https://www.wipo.int/tisc/en/search/details.jsp?id=5803
Tanzania score: 25/100
These businesses are not publicly declared and are wholly non-transparent.
Only some businesses are publicly declared. Details of their operations and finances are not fully transparent.
These businesses are publicly declared, though details of their operations and finances are not transparent.
All or most ownership of commercial businesses is publicly declared. Either operations and finances are transparent, but not both.
Any ownership of commercial businesses is publicly declared, with details of their operations and finances being transparent, fully disclosed, and with standards of governance equivalent to publicly owned commercial enterprises.
It is not clear how many military-owned enterprises there are. The website of SUMAJKT, the holding company for these enterprises, shows projects but does not systematically list the entities that are under it.  On the other hand, the Controller and Auditor General reports mention entities not mentioned on the website, referring, for example, to the ‘SUMA JKT Agrimachinery Project’, with no reference to which entitiy it is under, as well as separate entities such as the ‘SUMA JKT Construction Company Limited’. 
1. SUMAJKT, http://www.sumajkt.go.tz/.
2. Annual General Report Of The Controller And Auditor General On The Audit Of Financial Statements Of The Central Government For The Financial Year Ended 30th June 2020 (Dodoma: Controller and Auditor General, 2021), https://www.nao.go.tz/uploads/Annual_General_Report_for_Central_Government_2019_20_2.pdf.
Compare scores by country
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|Country||31a. Extent of commercial ventures||31b. Transparency|
|Albania||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Algeria||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Angola||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Argentina||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Armenia||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Australia||100 / 100||NA|
|Azerbaijan||100 / 100||NA|
|Bahrain||100 / 100||NA|
|Bangladesh||NEI||25 / 100|
|Belgium||100 / 100||NA|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||100 / 100||NA|
|Botswana||100 / 100||NA|
|Brazil||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Cameroon||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Canada||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Chile||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|China||NEI||25 / 100|
|Colombia||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||75 / 100||0 / 100|
|Denmark||100 / 100||NA|
|Egypt||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Estonia||100 / 100||NA|
|Finland||100 / 100||NA|
|France||100 / 100||NA|
|Germany||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Ghana||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Greece||100 / 100||NA|
|Hungary||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|India||25 / 100||75 / 100|
|Indonesia||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Iran||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|Iraq||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Israel||100 / 100||NA|
|Italy||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Japan||100 / 100||NA|
|Jordan||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|Kenya||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Kosovo||100 / 100||NA|
|Kuwait||100 / 100||0 / 100|
|Latvia||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Lebanon||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Lithuania||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Malaysia||0 / 100||75 / 100|
|Mali||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Mexico||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Montenegro||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Morocco||100 / 100||NA|
|Myanmar||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Netherlands||100 / 100||NA|
|New Zealand||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Niger||100 / 100||NA|
|Nigeria||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|North Macedonia||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Norway||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Oman||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Palestine||100 / 100||NA|
|Philippines||100 / 100||NA|
|Poland||100 / 100||NA|
|Portugal||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Qatar||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Russia||NEI||50 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Serbia||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Singapore||100 / 100||NA|
|South Africa||100 / 100||NA|
|South Korea||100 / 100||NA|
|South Sudan||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Spain||100 / 100||NA|
|Sudan||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Sweden||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Switzerland||0 / 100||100 / 100|
|Taiwan||100 / 100||NA|
|Tanzania||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Thailand||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Tunisia||100 / 100||NA|
|Turkey||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Uganda||50 / 100||75 / 100|
|Ukraine||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||100 / 100||0 / 100|
|United Kingdom||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|United States||100 / 100||NA|
|Venezuela||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|Zimbabwe||0 / 100||0 / 100|