Does the public trust the institutions of defence and security to tackle the issue of bribery and corruption in their establishments?
Venezuela score: NS/100
The public view the defence establishment as entirely indifferent to corruption within it, or as clearly corrupt, without the political will to tackle the problem.
The public view is that bribery and corruption are not, according to official rhetoric, acceptable to the defence establishment, but there is a widely-held belief that this is just that: rhetoric, and not seriously intended.
The public view is that bribery and corruption, though not acceptable to the defence establishment, is insufficiently addressed by the measures in place to tackle the problem.
This indicator is not scored. Please discuss conditions in the country context related to good practice (Score 4).
The public view is that there is a clear commitment from the defence establishment that bribery and corruption are not acceptable and must be prosecuted, and that their efforts to tackle the problem are sincere and effective.
This indicator is not assigned a score in the GDI. According to the LatinoBarómetro perception survey, the institution perceived most corrupt by Venezuelan citizens is the police, while the armed forces also experience a high level of mistrust, with only 19% of respondents expressing some confidence in this institution .
This perception can be tied to the involvement of the police and the FANB in organised crime activities, encompassing a full range of engagement in criminal networks, from accepting bribes so as to obtain benefits from programmes controlled by the military to participating in drug trafficking and smuggling . The institutions have not undertaken any campaigns seeking to address citizens’ perceptions of trust and corruption. Equally, the LatinoBarómetro survey indicates that citizens are highly tolerant of corrupt behaviour, with 63% of respondents agreeing that they would not take action when faced with evidence of corrupt practices.
This distrust of defence and security institutions among citizens is corroborated by the Global Anti-Corruption Index, according to which 73% of Venezuelans consider most police officers to be corrupt . This index also indicates that in at least 50% of cases users pay bribes for police services.
 LatinoBarómetro, “Informe 2018” (“2018 Report”), 9 November 2018, http://www.latinobarometro.org/lat.jsp.
 Tarre Briceño, M., “La corrupción policial y militar: un mal que crece en Venezuela” (“Military and police corruption: a growing evil in Venezuela”), InSight Crime, 2016, https://es.insightcrime.org/noticias/analisis/corrupcion-militar-policial-mal-crecen-venezuela/.
 Transparency International, “Las personas y la corrupción: América Latina y el Caribe” (“People and corruption: Latin America and the Caribbean”), 2017, https://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/publication/global_corruption_barometer_people_and_corruption_latin_america_and_the_car.
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