Does the country have an openly stated and effectively implemented anti-corruption policy for the defence sector?
7a. Anti-corruption policy
Canada score: 100/100
There is no anti-corruption policy, or there is one but it explicitly does not apply to the defence sector.
There is an openly stated anti-corruption policy, but it is unclear if it applies to the defence sector or the government is in process of developing one that applies to the defence sector.
There is an openly stated anti-corruption policy that applies to the defence sector.
There are broad anti-corruption laws in Canada, such as the Corruption of Foreign Public Official Act, and an assortment of tools and indicators used by the RCMP to detect, deter, and prosecute corruption.   There is no defence-specific anti-corruption policy in Canada. However, policies through Public Works apply to all government activity, including defence, and regulate hiring and the use of public funds throughout the public sector, including defence.  Bribery is forbidden under the Criminal Code. GAN International, which evaluates corruption from the perspective of businesses operating internationally, rates corruption in Canadian law enforcement, government operations, public services, procurement, and the judiciary as very low. 
1. “Corruption of Foreign PublicOfficials Act (S.C. 1998, c.34)”, Consolidated Acts, Justice Laws, Government of Canada, accessed May 20, 2020, https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-45.2/.
2. “Tools and resources to combat corruption”, Corruption, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, accessed May 20, 2020, https://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/en/corruption/tools-and-resources.
3. “Government of Canada’s Integrity Regime”, Procurement programs and initiatives, Doing business with government, Business and industry, Government of Canada, accessed October 1, 2019, https://www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca/ci-if/ci-if-eng.html.
4. “Canada Corruption Report”, Country Risk Reports, GAN Integrity, accessed October 1, 2019, https://www.ganintegrity.com/portal/country-profiles/canada/.
7b. Effective implementation
Canada score: 75/100
There is no action plan to implement the policy, nor have any actions been taken.
There is an action plan at the ministry level but it is superficial, and does not address the institutional weaknesses in the system, OR there efforts to implement an action plan at the national level.
There is an action plan at the ministry level that reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system, but no actions have been taken to implement it.
There is an action plan at the ministry level that reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system. While steps have been taken to implement the plan, it is either behind schedule, or implementation is not addressing the priority items in the action plan.
The action plan at the ministry level reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system, and implementation has progressed according to the estimated timeline.
The broad anti-corruption laws in Canada (see 7A) in addition to the DND’s “Code of Values and Ethics” (which clarifies expectations of individuals, supervisors, and units with respect to corruption) apply to both the Civilian and Military Defence staff, as the Code of Service Discipline defers to the Criminal Code of Canada for issues not explicitly mentioned therein.    While outlining expectation, regulations, and laws, the Code of Values and Ethics does not specify mechanisms for regular or proactive assessment, but rather reactive investigation and how to report breaches.  The Chief Review Service within the DND, reporting directly to the Deputy Minister, is the organisation that implements anti-corruption and ethics measures, and while the service is active, it does not communicate a specific plan, nor its priorities. 
1. Code of Values and Ethics (Ottawa: National Defence, 2012), accessed October 1, 2019, http://www.forces.gc.ca/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/about/code-eng.pdf.
2. “Audit and Evaluation Reports”, Reports and Publications, National Defence, Government of Canada, accessed October 1, 2019, https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/corporate/reports-publications/audit-evaluation.html.
3. “The Department of National Defence and Canadian Armed Forces (DND AND CAF) one-year ethics strategy FY 2019/20”, About the Defence Ethics Programme, Defence Ethics, Services and benefits for the military, Public Service and Military, Government of Canada, accessed October 1, 2019, https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/services/benefits-military/defence-ethics/about/plan.html.
4. “Corruption of Foreign PublicOfficials Act (S.C. 1998, c.34)”, Consolidated Acts, Justice Laws, accessed May 20, 2020, https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-45.2/.
5. “The Code of Service Discipline and Me,” Military law reports and publications, Reports and Publications, National Defence, Government of Canada, accessed March 23, 2020, https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/corporate/reports-publications/military-law/code-of-service-discipline.html.
Compare scores by country
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|Country||7a. Anti-corruption policy||7b. Effective implementation|
|Albania||75 / 100||25 / 100|
|Algeria||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Angola||0 / 100||NA|
|Argentina||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Armenia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Australia||25 / 100||NA|
|Azerbaijan||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Bahrain||50 / 100||NA|
|Bangladesh||0 / 100||NA|
|Belgium||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Botswana||0 / 100||NA|
|Brazil||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Cameroon||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Canada||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Chile||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|China||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Colombia||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||100 / 100||0 / 100|
|Denmark||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Egypt||0 / 100||NA|
|Estonia||75 / 100||NA|
|Finland||25 / 100||NA|
|France||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Germany||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Ghana||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Greece||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Hungary||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|India||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Indonesia||50 / 100||NA|
|Iran||50 / 100||NA|
|Iraq||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Israel||50 / 100||75 / 100|
|Italy||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Japan||0 / 100||NA|
|Jordan||50 / 100||NEI|
|Kenya||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Kosovo||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Kuwait||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Latvia||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Lebanon||50 / 100||NA|
|Lithuania||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Malaysia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Mali||0 / 100||NA|
|Mexico||75 / 100||25 / 100|
|Montenegro||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Morocco||25 / 100||NA|
|Myanmar||0 / 100||NA|
|Netherlands||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|New Zealand||75 / 100||NEI|
|Niger||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Nigeria||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|North Macedonia||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Norway||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Oman||0 / 100||NA|
|Palestine||0 / 100||NA|
|Philippines||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Poland||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Portugal||0 / 100||NA|
|Qatar||0 / 100||NA|
|Russia||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Serbia||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Singapore||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|South Africa||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|South Korea||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|South Sudan||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Spain||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Sudan||0 / 100||NA|
|Sweden||25 / 100||NA|
|Switzerland||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Taiwan||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Tanzania||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Thailand||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Tunisia||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Turkey||0 / 100||NA|
|Uganda||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Ukraine||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||50 / 100||NA|
|United Kingdom||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|United States||25 / 100||NA|
|Venezuela||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Zimbabwe||100 / 100||NEI|