Is there a Code of Conduct for all military personnel that includes, but is not limited to, guidance with respect to bribery, gifts and hospitality, conflicts of interest, and post-separation activities? Is there evidence that breaches of the Code of Conduct are effectively addressed?
46a. Code of conduct
France score: 100/100
There is no code of conduct for all military personnel.
There is a Code of Conduct but it is largely unknown. Or, it is known but does not address corruption issues at all.
There is a Code of Conduct, however, its content is not comprehensive. For example, it addresses corruption issues but it is too vague. It does not provide specfic guidance on how to proceed in the face of these events.
There is a Code of Conduct for all civilian personnel, but it does not cover all aspects listed in source 4. It does provide specific guidance on how to proceed in the face of these events.
There is a code of conduct, as a simple, readily understandable guide, for all military personnel, which comprehensively explains bribery, gifts and hospitality, conflicts of interest, and post-separation activities. It provides specific guidance on how to proceed in the face of these events.
In 2021, The Ministry of the Armed Forces adopted a standalone Anti-Corruption and Ethics Code of Conduct for all civilian and military personnel working under it or in associated agencies . The Anti-Corruption code is extensive and broken down into four parts:
– Part 1: details the main types of corruption offences under French law, based on a typology of corruption.
– Part 2: provides rules and recommendations on specific corruption-related issues such as conflicts of interests, gifts, hospitality, with guidelines on how to proceed to avoid exposing oneself to associated corruption risks.
– Part 3: provides a practical guide for personnel working in sensitive positions such as procurement, financial management and human resources, with a list of dos and donts and recommendations on mitigating corruption risks in practice.
– Part 4: provides information on existing procedures already in place to address corruption issues, such as whistleblowing procedures and ethical controls related to the revolving door.
The Ministry’s Anti-Corruption Code has been reviewed favourably by the Anti-Corruption Agency, which commended the Ministry for being the first ministry to implement such a code, which complies with requirements listed in the Sapin II Law of 9 December 2016 .
Alongside the Anti-Corruption Code, there is also an official code of conduct for the soldiers of the “armée de terre” (ground forces) with 11 key points, but none of them concerns corruption. 
Article R4122-14 of the Defence Code addresses conflicts of interests and post-separation activities,  but does not provide specific guidance on how to proceed in the face of corruption. Hospitality isn’t mentioned in the Defence Code.
Internal security forces (police and gendarmerie) do have an ethics code in which Article R439-4 on “Integrity”  addresses bribery, gifts, conflicts of interest, etc.
There is also a General Status of civil servants which includes provisions on private gain and conflicts of interest  however, it only applies to certain military personnel who exercise such functions, and the majorirty of personnel are not covered by this General Status .
1. Minitry of the Armed Forces, Code of Conduct for the Prevention of Ethics and Anti-Corruption Breaches, December 2020, https://www.defense.gouv.fr/content/download/599449/10111096/file/CODE%20de%20pr%C3%A9vention%20des%20risques%20d’atteinte%20%C3%A0%20la%20probit%C3%A9.%20Minarm.pdf
2. Jean Tenneroni, ‘The Implementation in the Ministry of the Armed Forces of the State’s First Anti-Corruption Code’, International Review of Compliance and Business Ethics, No. 2, April 2021, p. 2, http://www.lexiskiosque.fr/catalog/revue-internationale-de-la-compliance-et-de-lethique-des-affaires
3. “Soldiers’ Code”, Land Forces, Ministry of the Armed Forces, https://www.defense.gouv.fr/terre/bloc-les-essentiels/code-du-soldat.
4. Defence Code, art. R4122-14, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCodeArticle.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006071307&idArticle=LEGIARTI000018727710&dateTexte=&categorieLien=cid.
5. “Police and Gendarmerie Nationale Ethics Code”, Ethics, Ministry of the Interior, https://www.interieur.gouv.fr/Le-ministere/Deontologie.
6. Loi n° 83-634 du 13 juillet 1983 portant droits et obligations des fonctionnaires. Loi dite loi Le Pors. [Law n°83-634 of July 13, 1983 on the rights and obligations of civil servants. Also called Le Pors law.], http://legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006068812&dateTexte=20151102.
7. Ministere de la Transformation et de la Fonction Publique, ‘Statu General des Fonctionnaires’, https://www.fonction-publique.gouv.fr/statut-general-des-fonctionnaires
France score: 100/100
The code of conduct is not available to the public or military personnel.
The code of conduct exists but is not distributed to military personnel. It is not available to the public.
The code of conduct is distributed to military personnel on an ad hoc basis, and may or may not be available to the public.
The code of conduct is effectively distributed to all military personnel but is not made readily available to the public.
The code of conduct is available to the public and effectively distributed to all military personnel.
The Anti-Corruption Code of Conduct is readily available online in an easily accessible and legible format on the website of the Ministry of the Armed Forces, along with other ethics-related documents .
The “armée de terre” (land forces) and the navy do similar codes of conduct, that are both available for anyone to read online – but none of the respective 11  and 12  key points concern corruption. No code of conduct was found for the Air Force.
1. Ministry of the Armed Forces, ‘Ethics and Anti-Corruption in the Ministry of the Armed Forces’, https://www.defense.gouv.fr/portail/enjeux2/deontologie-et-anticorruption/la-deontologie-au-ministere-des-armees2
2. “Soldiers’ Code”, Land Forces, Ministry of the Armed Forces, https://www.defense.gouv.fr/terre/bloc-les-essentiels/code-du-soldat.
3. Guide du marin 2018 [Marine’s Guide 2018] (Paris: National Navy, 2018), 6,
France score: 75/100
The Code of Conduct lacks credibility and as a result is not used or enforced.
Breaches of the code of conduct are rarely investigated.
Breaches of the code of conduct are only occasionally investigated.
Breaches of the code of conduct are regularly investigated, even if the oversight mechanism is confidential. However, cases may not always be pursued where there is evidence of criminal behavior.
Breaches of the code of conduct are regularly investigated, even if the oversight mechanism is confidential. Cases are pursued where there is evidence of criminal behavior.
Given how the Anti-Corruption Code of Conduct was only approved in January 2021, it is still too early to assess its enforcement .
In relation to the Defence Code, breaches of the Code are investigated by civil justice in regular courts. Where there is evidence of criminal behavior, cases are pursued like for any citizen. For instance, the ICS case, concerning a sub-contracting company to the Ministry of the Armed Forces (MOAF) involved in corrupting high-ranking commanding officers of the Ministry to win contracts, is currently being investigated by the National Financial Prosecutor (PNF).  However, it should be noted that this investigation didn’t start from an internal notice, but from an anonymous denunciation. Letters were sent to the press, the MOAF and to competitors of ICS, which ended up on the PNF judge’s desk.
Another recent example of breaches of the anti-corruption law is the investigation into the “Balard scandal”. Three people were indicted: one military officer working at the MOAF, a manager of the Bouygues construction company and a Franco-tunisian serving as an middleman in the favouritism corruption scheme. 
There is a Military Ethics Committee that examines the requests of military personnel to quit the institution and work in the private sector, making sure no influence peddling and revolving doors practices threaten the ethics of the army.  A Law of April 20, 2018, created new, stricter rules for military personnel wishing to engage in for-profit activities. 
1. Joseph Martin, ‘French Military Adopts an “Ethics and Anti-Corruption Code of Conduct”‘, RSE Magazine, 4 January 2021, https://www.rse-magazine.com/Les-armees-francaises-adoptent-un-code-de-prevention-des-atteintes-a-la-probite_a4122.html
2. Geoffrey Livolsi and Benoît Collombat, “Aerial transport: suspicions of influence-peddling in the army”, France Inter, March 10, 2018, https://www.franceinter.fr/emissions/secrets-d-info/secrets-d-info-10-mars-2018.
3. Alice Mérieux, “Crazy additional costs of the Ministry of Defence HQ”, Les Echos, February 7, 2018, https://www.challenges.fr/economie/la-cour-des-comptes-accuse-le-ministere-de-la-defense-de-graves-derapages-financiers-a-son-siege-de-balard_565582.
4. Laurent Lagneux, “The retraining of some generals is giving the Military Ethics Committee a hard time”, Opex 360, October 2, 2015, http://www.opex360.com/2015/10/02/la-reconversion-de-certains-generaux-donne-du-fil-retordre-la-commission-de-deontologie-des-militaires/.
5. Décret n°2018-289 du 20 avril 2018 relatif à l’exercice d’activités privées lucratives par certains militaires [Decree n°2018-289 of April 20, 2018 concerning the exercise of for-profit private activities by certain soldiers], https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do;jsessionid=0DC9DB954F005283A1005908B21EA359.tplgfr31s_3?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000036825677&dateTexte=&oldAction=rechJO&categorieLien=id&idJO=JORFCONT000036825599.
France score: 50/100
No guidance of any kind is provided to military personnel on the code of conduct.
Ad hoc guidance may be provided to military personnel by commanding officers.
Guidance on the code of conduct is available to all military personnel, but is not part of induction training.
Guidance on the code of conduct is included in induction training for all military personnel.
As the Anti-Corruption Code is very recent, it is difficult to assess whether it has been integrated into training programmes. The Code itself is intended as guidance, and therefore does not provide details of how it is to disseminated throughout the defence apparatus, nor does it specifiy training requirements on its contents. Instead it simply “calls on commanders to disseminate the code amongst personnel to ensure its provisions are respected” . There is evidence that this Code was disseminated widely to all heads of departments, regiments and basis throughout France (both digital and hard copies) .
Guidance on Defence Code provisions regarding corruption is supposed to be provided to all military personnel through training, but the Code only mentions conflicts of interests and post-separation activities.  Although there is evidence that ethics “referents” have provided training to civilian and military personnel  , no record was found of specific training about all the different facets of corruption being automatically provided to all military personnel of the French army upon induction.
However, military personnel interviewed  said that, before external operations (OPEX), they were given cultural training at the Ecole Militaire in Paris (EMSOME ) ahead of their deployment abroad, to raise awareness about cultural differences and practices on the field, amongst which were corruption issues (“backchich”, bribes, gifts, etc).
1. Minitry of the Armed Forces, Code of Conduct for the Prevention of Ethics and Anti-Corruption Breaches, December 2020, p. 4, https://www.defense.gouv.fr/content/download/599449/10111096/file/CODE%20de%20pr%C3%A9vention%20des%20risques%20d’atteinte%20%C3%A0%20la%20probit%C3%A9.%20Minarm.pdf
2. Ministry of the Armed Forces, ‘Liste de diffusion du prévention des
atteintes à la probité’, December 2020 (offline copy provided to assessor).
3. Defence Code, art. R4122-14, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCodeArticle.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006071307&idArticle=LEGIARTI000018727710&dateTexte=&categorieLien=cid
4. Ministry of the Armed Forces, Rapport du Référent ministériel déontologue et alerte: La mise en place d’un dispositif deontologie et alerte au Ministere des Armees, 2017-2019, https://www.defense.gouv.fr/portail/enjeux2/deontologie-et-anticorruption/la-deontologie-au-ministere-des-armees2
5. Ministry of the Armed Forces, Rapport annuel du Référent ministériel déontologue et alerte: Le fonctionnement du dispositif de deontologie et d’alerte, 2020, https://www.defense.gouv.fr/portail/enjeux2/deontologie-et-anticorruption/la-deontologie-au-ministere-des-armees2
6. Interview with anonymous commando soldier deployed in several Opex missions, February 20, 2019.
7. “Etat Major de specialisation de l’outre mer et de l’étranger” [Overseas and Foreign Specialisation Staff], Land Forces Command, Great Commanders, Land Forces, Ministry of the Armed Forces, https://www.defense.gouv.fr/terre/l-armee-de-terre/les-grands-commandeurs/commandement-des-forces-terrestres/etat-major-de-specialisation-de-l-outre-mer-et-de-l-etranger.
Compare scores by country
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|Country||46a. Code of conduct||46b. Transparency||46c. Enforcement||46d. Training|
|Albania||50 / 100||100 / 100||50 / 100||NEI|
|Algeria||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|
|Angola||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|
|Argentina||50 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Armenia||25 / 100||100 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Australia||75 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Azerbaijan||50 / 100||NEI||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Bahrain||25 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Bangladesh||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|
|Belgium||75 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100||NEI|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||75 / 100||100 / 100||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Botswana||25 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Brazil||50 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||25 / 100||25 / 100||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Cameroon||25 / 100||25 / 100||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Canada||75 / 100||100 / 100||25 / 100||100 / 100|
|Chile||50 / 100||100 / 100||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|China||25 / 100||100 / 100||NEI||NEI|
|Colombia||75 / 100||100 / 100||NEI||NEI|
|Cote d'Ivoire||50 / 100||50 / 100||25 / 100||50 / 100|
|Denmark||75 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Egypt||25 / 100||25 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Estonia||50 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Finland||25 / 100||50 / 100||100 / 100||NEI|
|France||100 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Germany||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Ghana||25 / 100||25 / 100||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Greece||50 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Hungary||50 / 100||25 / 100||75 / 100||0 / 100|
|India||75 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Indonesia||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|
|Iran||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|
|Iraq||25 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Israel||75 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Italy||75 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Japan||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Jordan||25 / 100||50 / 100||NA||50 / 100|
|Kenya||100 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Kosovo||50 / 100||75 / 100||NA||50 / 100|
|Kuwait||25 / 100||75 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Latvia||75 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Lebanon||75 / 100||75 / 100||NA||0 / 100|
|Lithuania||50 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Malaysia||75 / 100||75 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Mali||50 / 100||50 / 100||0 / 100||100 / 100|
|Mexico||50 / 100||100 / 100||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|Montenegro||25 / 100||100 / 100||25 / 100||75 / 100|
|Morocco||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|
|Myanmar||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|
|Netherlands||100 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|New Zealand||75 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Niger||25 / 100||50 / 100||25 / 100||100 / 100|
|Nigeria||50 / 100||75 / 100||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|North Macedonia||100 / 100||100 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Norway||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Oman||25 / 100||25 / 100||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Palestine||25 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Philippines||50 / 100||75 / 100||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Poland||25 / 100||100 / 100||NA||75 / 100|
|Portugal||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|
|Qatar||25 / 100||25 / 100||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Russia||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|
|Saudi Arabia||50 / 100||25 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Serbia||25 / 100||100 / 100||NEI||NEI|
|Singapore||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|South Africa||50 / 100||100 / 100||NEI||100 / 100|
|South Korea||100 / 100||100 / 100||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|South Sudan||25 / 100||50 / 100||NEI||0 / 100|
|Spain||50 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Sudan||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|
|Sweden||50 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Switzerland||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Taiwan||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Tanzania||50 / 100||75 / 100||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Thailand||75 / 100||100 / 100||0 / 100||100 / 100|
|Tunisia||50 / 100||75 / 100||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Turkey||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|
|Uganda||50 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Ukraine||100 / 100||75 / 100||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||75 / 100||25 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|United Kingdom||100 / 100||100 / 100||50 / 100||75 / 100|
|United States||100 / 100||100 / 100||NEI||100 / 100|
|Venezuela||25 / 100||50 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Zimbabwe||0 / 100||NA||NA||NA|