Does the country have an openly stated and effectively implemented anti-corruption policy for the defence sector?
7a. Anti-corruption policy
Malaysia score: 100/100
There is no anti-corruption policy, or there is one but it explicitly does not apply to the defence sector.
There is an openly stated anti-corruption policy, but it is unclear if it applies to the defence sector or the government is in process of developing one that applies to the defence sector.
There is an openly stated anti-corruption policy that applies to the defence sector.
The new government has stepped up efforts to combat corruption, as a result of the 1MDB grand corruption scandal which saw former Prime Minister Najib Razak charged with numerous criminal offences.   Various new institutions have been set up, such as the establishment of the Special Cabinet Committee on Anti-Corruption (JKKMAR) and the Governance, Integrity and Anti-Corruption Centre (GIACC) on top of the national anti-corruption agency MACC. The new government has also formulated the National Anti-Corruption Plan as a measure to eradicate corruption.    The anti-corruption policy encompasses all sectors, including defence.
1. Nurbaiti Hamdan, Qishin Tariq, Mazwin Nik Anis, et al., “Najib Hit With 25 Charges of Graft and Money Laundering”, The Star, September 21, 2018, https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/09/21/expm-charged-in-1mdb-case-najib-hit-with-25-charges-of-graft-and-money-laundering.
2. Rozanna Latiff and A. Ananthalakshmi, “The Cover-up: Malaysian OfficialsReveal Just How Much 1MDB Probe Was Obstructed”, Reuters, July 4, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-malaysia-politics-najib-coverup-analy/the-cover-up-malaysian-officials-reveal-just-how-much-1mdb-probe-was-obstructed-idUSKBN1JT2Z9.
3. National Anti-Corruption Plan: 2019-2023 (Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Integrity Malaysia, 2019), available at https://www.pmo.gov.my/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/National-Anti-Corruption-Plan-2019-2023_.pdf,
4. Interview with a senior Ministry of Defence official, October 16, 2019, Kuala Lumpur.
5. Interview with Encik Zainuddin bin Hussin, Head of Integrity Unit, Malaysia’s Defence Ministry, November 19, 2019, Kuala Lumpur.
7b. Effective implementation
Malaysia score: 75/100
There is no action plan to implement the policy, nor have any actions been taken.
There is an action plan at the ministry level but it is superficial, and does not address the institutional weaknesses in the system, OR there efforts to implement an action plan at the national level.
There is an action plan at the ministry level that reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system, but no actions have been taken to implement it.
There is an action plan at the ministry level that reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system. While steps have been taken to implement the plan, it is either behind schedule, or implementation is not addressing the priority items in the action plan.
The action plan at the ministry level reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system, and implementation has progressed according to the estimated timeline.
Malaysia has released the formulation of the National Anti-Corruption Plan,  in which practical goals based on initiatives to be taken by every government and private agency to address corruption issues are set for the next five years. Under the National Anti-Corruption Policy (NACP), the Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) is currently in the process of drafting an Organisational Anti-Corruption Plan (OACP).   However, it is still too early to analyse the effectiveness of its implementation as it is only set to be completed in 2020. Nevertheless, numerous efforts have been made by the MACC to combat corruption in defence, such as the scrutiny of the Ministry of Defence’s land swap deals and a move to reopen the Scorpene case.  
1. National Anti-Corruptional Plan: 2019-2023 (Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Integrity Malaysia, 2019), available at http://integriti.my/giacc/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/National-Anti-Corruption-Plan-2019-2023.pdf.
2. Interview with a senior Ministry of Defence official, October 16, 2019, Kuala Lumpur.
3. Interview with Encik Zainuddin bin Hussin, Head of Integrity Unit, Malaysia’s Defence Ministry, November 19, 2019, Kuala Lumpur.
4. Mazwin Nik Aziz, “Mindef goes to MACC with remaining 14 fishy land swap deals,” The Star Online, May 17, 2019, https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2019/05/17/mindef-goes-to-macc-with-remaining-14-fishy-land-swap-deals#8UoJwCKjjJr1E74F.99.
5. Mazwin Nik Anis, “Scorpene Scandal: Graft Investigators Reopen Case Involving Najib and Razak Baginda”, The Star Online, November 19, 2018, https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/11/19/scorpene-scandal-graft-investigators-reopen-case-involving-najib-and-razak-baginda.
Compare scores by country
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|Country||7a. Anti-corruption policy||7b. Effective implementation|
|Albania||75 / 100||25 / 100|
|Algeria||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Angola||0 / 100||NA|
|Argentina||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Armenia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Australia||25 / 100||NA|
|Azerbaijan||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Bahrain||50 / 100||NA|
|Bangladesh||0 / 100||NA|
|Belgium||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Botswana||0 / 100||NA|
|Brazil||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Cameroon||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Canada||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Chile||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|China||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Colombia||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||100 / 100||0 / 100|
|Denmark||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Egypt||0 / 100||NA|
|Estonia||75 / 100||NA|
|Finland||25 / 100||NA|
|France||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Germany||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Ghana||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Greece||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Hungary||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|India||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Indonesia||50 / 100||NA|
|Iran||50 / 100||NA|
|Iraq||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Israel||50 / 100||75 / 100|
|Italy||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Japan||0 / 100||NA|
|Jordan||50 / 100||NEI|
|Kenya||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Kosovo||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Kuwait||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Latvia||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Lebanon||50 / 100||NA|
|Lithuania||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Malaysia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Mali||0 / 100||NA|
|Mexico||75 / 100||25 / 100|
|Montenegro||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Morocco||25 / 100||NA|
|Myanmar||0 / 100||NA|
|Netherlands||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|New Zealand||75 / 100||NEI|
|Niger||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Nigeria||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|North Macedonia||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Norway||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Oman||0 / 100||NA|
|Palestine||0 / 100||NA|
|Philippines||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Poland||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Portugal||0 / 100||NA|
|Qatar||0 / 100||NA|
|Russia||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Serbia||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Singapore||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|South Africa||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|South Korea||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|South Sudan||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Spain||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Sudan||0 / 100||NA|
|Sweden||25 / 100||NA|
|Switzerland||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Taiwan||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Tanzania||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Thailand||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Tunisia||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Turkey||0 / 100||NA|
|Uganda||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Ukraine||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||50 / 100||NA|
|United Kingdom||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|United States||25 / 100||NA|
|Venezuela||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Zimbabwe||100 / 100||NEI|