Are there independent, well-resourced, and effective institutions within defence and security tasked with building integrity and countering corruption?
8a. Mandate and resources
Malaysia score: 100/100
There are no compliance or ethics units in place and no effort to establish them.
There is no evidence of such units, but there is evidence that the country is making proactive efforts to establish them.
Compliance and ethics units in the defence sector are in place. But there are extensive weaknesses in both staffing and funding, and expertise or their mandate is unclear.
There are identifiable compliance and ethics units within defence and security that are mandated to handle integrity and corruption in defence, but there are some weaknesses either in staffing and funding, or expertise.
There are identifiable compliance and ethics units within defence and security that are mandated to handle integrity and corruption in defence, and they are suitably staffed and funded.
There is an Internal Audit and Investigation Division (BADSA) which is tasked with carrying out internal audits and conducting general investigations to ensure compliance in management. BADSA comprises several teams, each tasked with overseeing specific sections or activities in the ministry. BADSA offices are also established in several select states. Each team is suitably staffed with a Head Auditor and several assistant auditors as well as several administrative officers . In addition, as part of a wider effort to increase integrity and reduce corruption, there is an Integrity Unit established in each government agency, including in the Defence Ministry (MINDEF) [2,3]. The Integrity Unit is tasked with identifying and responding to corruption cases, and with ensuring integrity and compliance. The Integrity Unit is much smaller compared to BADSA but is believed to be adequately staffed to run integrity building programmes and receive tips and complaints of misconduct which are forwarded to MACC for investigation. The unit is headed by an officer from MACC itself, the national anti-corruption task force. There are also numerous external integrity and anti-corruption institutions. The Institute of Integrity Malaysia is the operational body of the GIACC tasked with overseeing the implementation of the National Anti-Corruption Plan (NACP) . The focal point of the government’s anti-corruption efforts is the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC) which is tasked with identifying and investigating all levels of corruption in all government agencies, including defence . There is no information on the budget allocation for these units, nevertheless, judging from the amount and breadth of audits and programmes and activities organised, it is believed that the units are adequately funded.
1. “Internal Audit and Investigation Division (BADSA)”, Ministry of Defence, http://www.mod.gov.my/direktori3/index.php/mindef/category/bahagian-audit-dalam-siasatan-am.
2. “Establishment of Integrity Unit”, Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission, https://www.sprm.gov.my/index.php/en/prevention/felda-legal-affairs/establishment-integrity-unit.
3. “Integrity Unit”, Ministry of Defence, http://www.mod.gov.my/direktori3/index.php/mindef/category/unit-integriti/2.
4. Institute of Integrity Malaysia, http://integriti.my/.
5. Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission Official Portal, https://www.sprm.gov.my/en/.
Malaysia score: 100/100
The institutions/ units are under political control or they are misused. The work of the institutions can be shut down by other defence and security institutions.
The institutions/ units may be in the chain of command of the defence and security institutions that they oversee. However they can not be shut down by these institutions.
The institutions/ units are not in the chain of command of the defence and security institutions which they oversee. They report directly to a senior member of the Ministry of Defence (e.g. Chief of Staff).
Both BADSA and the Integrity Unit are placed under the direct command of and report to the Chief Minister of Defence. 
1. “Organisational Chart”, About Us, Ministry of Defence, http://www.mod.gov.my/en/about-us/organisational-chart
Malaysia score: 100/100
These institutions or units are not even aware of corruption risks within their institution.
Staff within the units understand the corruption risks specific to their institutions, but they fail to prepare an effective action plan with appropriate mitigation measures which address the risks.
Staff within the units understand the corruption risks specific to their institutions, but they are not able to address risks appropriately or adequately, either through their own work or by compelling others.
Staff within the units understand the corruption risks specific to their institutions, and are able to address some risks independently. But they are not able to ensure other departments address risks adequately.
Staff within the units understand the corruption risks specific to their institutions. They are able to address risks independently and to ensure that other departments or units handle risks appropriately. Actions to handle risks may include training, oversight, or policy recommendations.
BADSA actively oversees activities within MINDEF.    In 2018, eleven audits were carried out by BADSA within the Ministry of Defence.  The ministry’s annual report incorporates both BADSA’s (page 28) and the Integrity Unit’s anti-corruption and integrity-building activities and assessments (page 53).  Defence ministry officials (political appointees and career civil servants) have generally viewed BADSA with suspicion. This is partly because BADSA has been seen as a unit which takes its internal audits seriously.  The Integrity Unit is headed by an officer from the MACC. In an interview with officials from the Integrity Unit, the unit demonstrated a clear understanding of corruption risks in MINDEF and seem to be well prepared to mitigate such risks through numerous regular anti-corruption training and activities as well as prompt action in case of any surat layang (poison pen letters) or complaints received of alleged misconduct or corrupt acts. 
1. “Pengauditan BADSA di PU Kuching” [“BADSA audit at PU Kuching”], Malaysia Air Force, last updated February 20, 2017, http://www.airforce.mil.my/berita/berita-dari-pangkalan/1549-pengauditan-badsa-di-pu-kuching.
2. “SMASHEX Siri 7/2018 Dan Demonstrasi Keupayaan Submarine Escape and Rescue Siri 12/2018” [“SMASHEX Series 7/2018 And Submarine Escape and Rescue Ability Demonstration Series 12/2018”], Malaysia Navy, last updated December 13, 2018, http://www.navy.mil.my/index.php/en/information/news/main/item/4913-smashex-siri-7-2018-dan-demonstrasi-keupayaan-submarine-escape-and-rescue-siri-12-2018.
3. “Audit Accountability Index Monitoring System (AIMS) Markas Pemerintahan Kapal Selam” [“Audit Accountability Index Monitoring System (AIMS) Submarine Government Headquarters”], Malaysia Navy, last updated September 5, 2018, http://www.navy.mil.my/index.php/en/information/news/main/item/4749-audit-accountability-index-monitoring-system-aims-markas-pemerintahan-kapal-selam.
4. “List of BADSA Audit Achievements”, Data.gov, last updated December 11, 2018, http://www.data.gov.my/data/en_US/dataset/senarai-pengauditan-prestasi-bahagian-audit-dalam-dan-siasatan-am-kementerian-pertahanan/resource/c332bab7-d854-405f-9e50-c1b5021633b9.
5. MINDEF Annual Report 2018 (Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Defence, 2018), available at http://www.mod.gov.my/phocadownload/penerbitan/laporantahunan/laporan-tahunan-2018.pdf.
6. Interview with UMNO member, February 15, 2020, Kuala Lumpur.
7. Interview with Encik Zainuddin bin Hussin, Head of Integrity Unit, Malaysia’s Defence Ministry, November 19, 2019, Kuala Lumpur.
Compare scores by country
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|Country||8a. Mandate and resources||8b. Independence||8c. Effectiveness|
|Albania||100 / 100||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Algeria||0 / 100||NA||NA|
|Angola||0 / 100||NA||NA|
|Argentina||100 / 100||50 / 100||75 / 100|
|Armenia||75 / 100||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Australia||75 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Azerbaijan||25 / 100||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Bahrain||0 / 100||NA||NA|
|Bangladesh||75 / 100||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Belgium||75 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Botswana||25 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Brazil||100 / 100||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||50 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Cameroon||50 / 100||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|Canada||75 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Chile||50 / 100||25 / 100||50 / 100|
|China||75 / 100||0 / 100||75 / 100|
|Colombia||NEI||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||50 / 100||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Denmark||75 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Egypt||50 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Estonia||75 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Finland||100 / 100||50 / 100||NEI|
|France||50 / 100||50 / 100||75 / 100|
|Germany||75 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Ghana||50 / 100||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Greece||0 / 100||NA||NA|
|Hungary||75 / 100||25 / 100||50 / 100|
|India||75 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Indonesia||75 / 100||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Iran||50 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Iraq||50 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Israel||75 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Italy||75 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Japan||75 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Jordan||50 / 100||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Kenya||75 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Kosovo||75 / 100||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Kuwait||25 / 100||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Latvia||75 / 100||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Lebanon||50 / 100||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Lithuania||75 / 100||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Malaysia||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Mali||50 / 100||NEI||0 / 100|
|Mexico||100 / 100||50 / 100||NEI|
|Montenegro||75 / 100||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Morocco||0 / 100||NA||NA|
|Myanmar||25 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Netherlands||100 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|New Zealand||100 / 100||100 / 100||NEI|
|Niger||50 / 100||25 / 100||50 / 100|
|Nigeria||50 / 100||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|North Macedonia||75 / 100||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Norway||100 / 100||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Oman||0 / 100||NA||NA|
|Palestine||50 / 100||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Philippines||50 / 100||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|Poland||75 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Portugal||75 / 100||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Qatar||0 / 100||NA||NA|
|Russia||50 / 100||25 / 100||75 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||25 / 100||NA||NA|
|Serbia||50 / 100||25 / 100||NEI|
|Singapore||75 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|South Africa||75 / 100||50 / 100||NEI|
|South Korea||100 / 100||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|South Sudan||0 / 100||0 / 100||NEI|
|Spain||50 / 100||NEI||50 / 100|
|Sudan||0 / 100||NA||NA|
|Sweden||100 / 100||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Switzerland||75 / 100||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Taiwan||100 / 100||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Tanzania||50 / 100||25 / 100||NEI|
|Thailand||100 / 100||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Tunisia||50 / 100||50 / 100||NEI|
|Turkey||0 / 100||NA||NA|
|Uganda||50 / 100||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Ukraine||75 / 100||0 / 100||75 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||0 / 100||NA||NA|
|United Kingdom||100 / 100||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|United States||100 / 100||25 / 100||100 / 100|
|Venezuela||0 / 100||NA||NA|
|Zimbabwe||50 / 100||100 / 100||25 / 100|