In law, are off-budget military expenditures permitted, and if so, are they exceptional occurrences that are well-controlled? In practice, are there any off-budget military expenditures? If so, does evidence suggest this involves illicit economic activity?
29a. Permitted exceptions
Niger score: 100/100
Off-budget military expenditures are permitted by law, or the exceptions are somewhat broad.
Offf-budget expenditures are permitted by law, for some very limited exceptions (e.g. military involvement in natural disaster relief efforts may, for example, be one such type of military expenditure).
Off-budget expenditures are not permitted by law
The Nigerien Constitution (2010) does not allow for off-budget military expenditures (dépenses hors budget, dépenses extrabudgétaires), although they may take place illicitly. The National Assembly must approve the State Budget, including all defence/security expenditures. All military spending has to be funded via the budget, which has to be authorised by the National Assembly (1).
Article 101: The State Budget (Loi de Finances) provides and authorises for each calendar year all the resources and public expenditures.
Article 113: The National Assembly votes the State Budget Law as per the conditions established by law.
Article 114: The National Assembly is tasked with examining the draft budget law in the budget session; the draft budget law must provide the revenue necessary for the full coverage of expenses.
Article 115: The National Assembly can request the Court of Auditors (Cour des Comptes) to carry out any investigations and studies related to the execution of public revenue and expenditure.
In addition, countries such as France contribute (through cash and in-kind donations, as well as training) toward military expenditure in Niger. According to OECD data, France contributed USD 5.03 million to Niger in 2014. This type of international military assistance (mostly for training purposes) is not included in the State Budget (2).
1. “Niger: Constitution de la VIIe République,” (Niger: Constitution of the 7th Republic) Journal Officiel de la République du Niger, 29 Novembre 2010, p. 246 à 261,”
2. “Les dépenses militaires et l’aide au développement au Sahel : quel équilibre?,” (Military spending and development aid in the Sahel: what balance?) Fondation pour les études et recherches sur le développement international, November 2016, p. 40 (Table 11),
29b. Recording mechanisms
Niger score: NA/100
Off-budget military expenditures are not officially recorded in the budget.
Only some off-budget expenditures are recorded in the budget. Or, all off-budget expenditures are recorded but in an incomplete or highly aggregated manner.
All off-budget expenditures are recorded in the respective budgets.
Provided that off-budget expenditure is not authorised, this indicator has been marked Not Applicable.
Niger score: NEI/100
There are substantial off-budget military expenditures and this involves illicit economic activity.
There are substantial off-budget military expenditures, but this involves legitimate economic activity.
Off-budget military expenditures happen occasionally, and either this is commonplace, or the extent to which this is a regular practice is unclear.
Off-budget military expenditures happen occasionally, but this is not a widely practiced phenomenon.
Off-budget military expenditures are rare.
This indicator has not been assigned a score due to insufficient information or evidence.
The Nigerien Constitution (2010) does not allow for off-budget military expenditures (dépenses hors budget, dépenses extrabudgétaires), although they may take place illicitly. There is no evidence to show how prevalent this phenomenon may be.
Compare scores by country
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|Country||29a. Permitted exceptions||29b. Recording mechanisms||29c. Prevalence|
|Algeria||0 / 100||0 / 100||NEI|
|Angola||0 / 100||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||0 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Cameroon||0 / 100||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||0 / 100||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Egypt||0 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Ghana||0 / 100||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|Jordan||0 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Kuwait||100 / 100||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Lebanon||0 / 100||NEI||NEI|
|Mali||0 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Morocco||0 / 100||0 / 100||NEI|
|Niger||100 / 100||NA||NEI|
|Nigeria||0 / 100||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Oman||0 / 100||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|Palestine||NEI||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Qatar||0 / 100||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||0 / 100||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Tunisia||100 / 100||NA||100 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||0 / 100||0 / 100||50 / 100|