Personnel Risk:

High

Score:

35/100

Leadership Behaviour

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Q34 13/100

Do the Defence Ministry, Defence Minister, Chiefs of Defence, and Single Service Chiefs publicly commit, through, for example, speeches, media interviews, or political mandates, to anti-corruption and integrity measures?

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Chiefs/Ministers: Internal communications Score: 25 / 100
There is an internal commitment to anti-corruption, as evidenced by the direction that all officers should declare their assets. “The head of Nigeria‚Äôs army…
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Chiefs/Ministers: Public commitment Score: NEI / 100
This indicator has not been assigned a score due to insufficient information or evidence.
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Unit commanders and leaders Score: 0 / 100
“Corruption in the Nigerian Army might be the biggest impediment to the fight against Boko Haram insurgency say rank and file soldiers” (1). Lower…
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Q35 63/100

Are there effective measures in place for personnel found to have taken part in forms of bribery and corruption, and is there evidence that these measures are being carried out?

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Sanctions Score: 100 / 100
The recent probe into defence procurement between 2007-2015 indicates that the Buhari administration is serious about fighting corruption in the military. However, there are…
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Enforcement Score: 25 / 100
A panel found that over USD 15 billion was stolen from the state coffers under the guise of fraudulent arms procurement deals during the…
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Q36 17/100

Is whistleblowing encouraged by the government, and are whistle-blowers in military and defence ministries afforded adequate protection from reprisal for reporting evidence of corruption, in both law and practice?

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Legal provisions Score: 25 / 100
The Whistleblower Protection Bill was passed into law on the 19th of October 2017. It applies to persons and public officials, corporate bodies private…
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Prioritisation Score: 25 / 100
The Whistleblower Protection Bill was passed into law on the 19th of October 2017. Before that, the policy was promoted but there was not…
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Effectiveness Score: 0 / 100
Beneficiaries have mostly left the country because they are not confident about the ability of the government to protect them if the information leads…
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Q37 0/100

Is special attention paid to the selection, time in post, and oversight of personnel in sensitive positions, including officials and personnel in defence procurement, contracting, financial management, and commercial management?

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Coverage of sensitive (higher-risk) positions Score: 0 / 100
No evidence shows that the selection process of personnel in sensitive positions, like procurement in the defence and security sectors, receives special attention. Although…
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Selection process Score: NA / 100
No evidence shows that special attention is paid to personnel in high-risk positions. Therefore this indicator has been marked Not Applicable.
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Oversight Score: NA / 100
No evidence shows that special attention is paid to personnel in high-risk positions. Therefore this indicator has been marked Not Applicable.
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Payroll, Promotions, Appointments, Rewards

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Q38 8/100

Is the number of civilian and military personnel accurately known and publicly available?

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Accuracy Score: 0 / 100
The Integrated Payroll and Personnel Information System (IPPIS) is an Information Communications Technology (ICT) project initiated by the Nigerian government to improve the effectiveness…
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Transparency Score: 25 / 100
The Integrated Payroll and Personnel Information System (IPPIS) is currently ongoing. The payroll system has identified several ghost soldiers. There are figures for the…
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Ghost soldiers Score: 0 / 100
There have been credible reports over the last five years of a large number of ghost soldiers (1), (2). The Integrated Payroll and Personnel…
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Q39 13/100

Are pay rates and allowances for civilian and military personnel openly published?

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Pay rates Score: 25 / 100
Although the Consolidated Armed Forces Salary Structure (CONAFSS) was made public in previous years, it is not regularly updated, or easily accessible to the…
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Allowances Score: 0 / 100
Information on allowances is not publicly available (1).
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Q40 0/100

Do personnel receive the correct pay on time, and is the system of payment well-established, routine, and published?

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Timeliness Score: 0 / 100
The military is highly funded, but most of the money is squandered through corruption. The soldiers are poorly trained, poorly equipped, poorly paid, and…
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Accuracy Score: 0 / 100
The Integrated Payroll and Personnel Information System (IPPIS) is an Information Communications Technology (ICT) project initiated by the Nigerian government to improve the effectiveness…
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Transparency Score: 0 / 100
The Integrated Payroll and Personnel Information System (IPPIS) is an Information Communications Technology (ICT) project initiated by the Nigerian government to improve the effectiveness…
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Q41 33/100

Is there an established, independent, transparent, and objective appointment system for the selection of military personnel at middle and top management level?

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Formal process Score: 25 / 100
The Constitution under section 218(2) gives the president the power to appoint chiefs of all the armed forces and the Senate the power to…
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Scrutiny Score: 25 / 100
The Nigerian Senate plays a role in confirming top appointments. There is no external audit of such positions (1). Individuals aggrieved by decisions can…
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Transparency Score: 50 / 100
The Constitution under section 218(2) gives the president the power to appoint chiefs of all the armed forces and the Senate the power to…
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Q42 31/100

Are personnel promoted through an objective, meritocratic process? Such a process would include promotion boards outside of the command chain, strong formal appraisal processes, and independent oversight.

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Formal process Score: 25 / 100
Promotions are also subject to the policy of Federal Character Principle (made based on political or ethnic considerations). Political influence does play a role…
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Exceptions Score: 0 / 100
Promotions are political at colonel-level and above and are completely within the purview of the Chief of Army Staff (COAS). An officer must spend…
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Comprehensiveness Score: 50 / 100
Name, rank, new post and effective date are publicly declared at least one month ahead, but not for all officers above OF-4. Equivalent information…
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Frequency Score: 50 / 100
Name, rank, new post and effective date are publicly declared at least one month ahead, but not for all officers above OF-4. Equivalent information…
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Conscription and Recruitment

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Q43 NA/100

Where compulsory conscription occurs, is there a policy of not accepting bribes for avoiding conscription? Are there appropriate procedures in place to deal with such bribery, and are they applied?

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Policy Score: NA / 100
Conscription is not a feature of the Nigerian military (1). Therefore this indicator is marked Not Applicable.
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Sanctions Score: NA / 100
Conscription is not a feature of the Nigerian military (1). Therefore this indicator is marked Not Applicable.
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Enforcement Score: NA / 100
Conscription is not a feature of the Nigerian military (1). Therefore this indicator is marked Not Applicable.
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Q44 83/100

is there a policy of refusing bribes to gain preferred postings? Are there appropriate procedures in place to deal with such bribery, and are they applied?

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Policy Score: 100 / 100
Section 98 of the Nigerian Criminal Code deals with the offence of corruption by defining what it is and describing its related offences (1),…
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Sanctions Score: 100 / 100
The Nigerian Criminal Code prohibits bribery and corruption and also gives provision for sanctions (chapter four of the code) (1), (2).
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Enforcement Score: 50 / 100
Although the Code spells out penalties for bribery, penalties are not consistently applied to all people accused, tried and charged for bribery (1).
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Salary Chain

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Q45 100/100

Are chains of command separate from chains of payment?

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Score: 100 / 100
Chains of command are separated from chains of payment. The National Defence Policy 2006 posits a change of command for planning and conduct of…
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Values and Standards

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Q46 38/100

Is there a Code of Conduct for all military personnel that includes, but is not limited to, guidance with respect to bribery, gifts and hospitality, conflicts of interest, and post-separation activities? Is there evidence that breaches of the Code of Conduct are effectively addressed?

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Code of conduct Score: 50 / 100
The General Code of Conduct in the Fifth Schedule of the 1999 Constitution applies to all Public Officers, including the military. It prohibits accepting…
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Transparency Score: 75 / 100
The Code of Conduct is distributed to all service personnel. However, the general public is not familiar with its contents (1).
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Enforcement Score: 25 / 100
Following the inauguration of the Buhari administration, there was the prosecution of high-ranking officers for various infractions of the code of conduct. This initial…
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Training Score: 0 / 100
There is no evidence to show that guidance is provided through training (1).
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Q47 44/100

Is there a Code of Conduct for all civilian personnel that includes, but is not limited to, guidance with respect to bribery, gifts and hospitality, conflicts of interest, and post-separation activities? Is there evidence that breaches of the Code of Conduct are effectively addressed?

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Code of conduct Score: 75 / 100
The General Code of Conduct of the Fifth Schedule of the 1999 Constitution applies to all personnel. It guides how to escalate issues. It…
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Transparency Score: 50 / 100
The Code of Conduct is readily available on the Code of Conduct Bureau’s website (1).
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Enforcement Score: 50 / 100
Enforcement of the code does not apply to all cases (1).
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Training Score: 0 / 100
There is no evidence to show that personnel are trained (1)
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Q48 42/100

Does regular anti-corruption training take place for military and civilian personnel?

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Comprehensiveness Score: 50 / 100
There is training provided for anti-corruption issues. The extent or scope of the training offered defers according to the degree of risk relative to…
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Regularity Score: 25 / 100
Training exists for certain posts. NACS includes an obligation to introduce training on anti-corruption, but it is not regular (1), (2).
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Coverage of personnel Score: 50 / 100
There is training provided for anti-corruption issues. The extent or scope of the training offered differs according to the degree of risk relative to…
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Q49 33/100

Is there a policy to make public outcomes of the prosecution of defence services personnel for corrupt activities, and is there evidence of effective prosecutions in recent years?

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Policy Score: 0 / 100
There is no formal policy that the MOD or anti-corruption agencies have to make prosecution outcomes public information. There is an informal practice that…
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Transparency Score: 50 / 100
There is no formal policy to make the outcomes of the prosecution of defence personnel public. Although there have been some high-profile prosecutions of…
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Effectiveness Score: 50 / 100
Currently, several prosecutions are ongoing. The political pressure has been focused on getting convictions, rather than derailing the investigations or the prosecution of top…
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Q50 50/100

Are there effective measures in place to discourage facilitation payments (which are illegal in almost all countries)?

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Legal framework Score: 100 / 100
Nigeria is a signatory to the United Nations International Convention Against Corruption (12.03). (UNCAC) (1). Nigeria is also a signatory to the African Union…
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Enforcement Score: 0 / 100
It is worth observing that despite the prohibition of such payments under the Criminal Code and other laws, there has not been a single…
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Prevalence Score: 50 / 100
The recent case of the MTN and the alleged payments made to public officials who are currently being investigated suggests that facilitation payments do…
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