Are there effective measures in place for personnel found to have taken part in forms of bribery and corruption, and is there evidence that these measures are being carried out?
Oman score: 25/100
Offences are not defined; no evidence of other formal mechanisms. Or the military are exempt from law.
Bribery and/or corruption are not defined offences in law that apply to the defence sector, but there are wider legal mechanisms in place (e.g. national laws supported by policies, regulations, or other laws) used to address this.
Bribery and/or corruption are defined offences in law that clearly apply to the defence sector, but 2 or more of the following mechanisms are not provided for: offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting bribes. Sanctions exist in law, but maximum penalties constitute less than 1 year imprisonment or weak fines that would not act as a deterrent.
Bribery and/or corruption are defined offences in law that clearly apply to the defence sector, but 2 or more of the following mechanisms are not provided for: offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting bribes. Possible sanctions include criminal prosecution/ incarceration, dismissal, and considerable financial penalties.
There are a range of clearly defined offences in law that clearly apply to the defence sector. These offences cover (at a minimum) offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty. Possible sanctions include criminal prosecution/ incarceration, dismissal, and considerable financial penalties.
Bribery is defined in Omani law and based on our sources, this law is applied to the defence sector when there are no official articles/ policies mentioned in the penal code of the military (1). Therefore, prosecution procedures for defence and security personnel are possible. Bribery is defined as, “any person who accepted a bribe for himself or for another person, be it in cash or a present or a promise or any other benefit for performing a lawful act of his duties, or for forbearing to do it or delaying its execution” according to the Omani Penal Code, Royal Decree 7/74 (2). The law targets public officials, they risk up to ten years imprisonment, a fine equivalent at least to the size of bribe and suspension of duties, the penalty extends to the bribery and mediator (2). Although legislation details bribery, no evidence suggests it includes or applies to the defence sector. Given that the defence sector is exempt from the parliamentary discussion, the tender board, and eGovernment open data requests it is difficult to ascertain if the penal code is applied to the military or security services (3), (4), (5). Military courts deal with malpractice in the defence and security sectors, “the jurisdiction of military courts is limited to military offences by members of the armed forces and security” suggestive that military courts overseen by armed forces officers deal with all crimes perpetrated by defence personnel (6).
1. Interview with Omani Army Officer, May 25-27, 2019.
2. “Oman – Corruption,” Export.gov, 2017, https://bit.ly/2PDFffl.
3. “BTI 2018 Country Report Oman,” Transformation Index BTI, 2018, https://bit.ly/2yHJ9cA.
4. “Oman – Selling to the Government” 2017. Export.gov https://bit.ly/2PH3QQv.
5. “Open Government Data Policy,” Sultanate of Oman: Information Technology Authority, 2019, https://bit.ly/2P3yZy4.
6. “Military Justice,” Omanuna, https://bit.ly/2CZ8CCl.
Oman score: 25/100
There is a complete failure to investigate or prosecute, even in the face of clear evidence.
Instances of bribery or corruption are superficially investigated or rarely disclipined.
Instances of bribery or corruption are investigated but not often disciplined. There is clear undue influence in the decision making process.
Instances of bribery or corruption are investigated or disciplined through formal processes, but undue political influence is attempted and sometimes effective at derailing prosecutions.
Instances of bribery or corruption are investigated or disciplined through formal processes and without undue political influence.
There is no evidence of the prosecution of military personnel involved in bribery or corruption available to the public. However, there are very few cases where military personnel were prosecuted for misuse of power and authority. These cases are not for the high-rank officer but low and medium rank that do not catch public attention. However, such cases were superficially persecuted and they returned to their work after a few months (1). There are no media reports detailing corruption in the defence or security sectors, though corruption within the country is reported to have gone down between 2015 and 2016 by 7.5% (2), (3). In the absence of information regarding corruption in the defence sector, it is difficult to tell whether there is a failure to prosecute due to the lack of information available, or whether the lack of evidence suggests that if such prosecutions happen they happen in secret and are not declared to the public. There is no evidence of the prosecution of military personnel involved in bribery or corruption. No information was found on institutional websites such as the Ministry of Defence or the eGovernment open data portal Omanuna (4), (5).
1. Interview with Omani Army Officer, May 25-27, 2019.
2. “Oman News Agency,” https://www.omannews.gov.om/.
3. “Corruption Cases Decline By 7.5% In Oman,” Anti-Corruption Digest, 2017, https://bit.ly/2JDYmjT.
4. Sultanate of Oman Ministry of Defence Home,” Ministry of Defence, 2018, http://www.mod.gov.om/.
5. “Omanuna: Oman Egovernment Service Portal,” Omanuna, 2018, http://www.oman.om.
Compare scores by country
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|Country||35a. Sanctions||35b. Enforcement|
|Albania||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Algeria||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Angola||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Argentina||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Armenia||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Australia||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Azerbaijan||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Bahrain||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Bangladesh||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Belgium||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Botswana||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Brazil||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Cameroon||100 / 100||0 / 100|
|Canada||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Chile||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|China||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Colombia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||100 / 100||0 / 100|
|Denmark||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Egypt||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Estonia||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Finland||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|France||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Germany||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Ghana||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Greece||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Hungary||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|India||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Indonesia||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Iran||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Iraq||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Israel||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Italy||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Japan||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Jordan||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Kenya||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Kosovo||25 / 100||75 / 100|
|Kuwait||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Latvia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Lebanon||50 / 100||NEI|
|Lithuania||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Malaysia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Mali||100 / 100||0 / 100|
|Mexico||75 / 100||25 / 100|
|Montenegro||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Morocco||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Myanmar||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Netherlands||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|New Zealand||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Niger||100 / 100||0 / 100|
|Nigeria||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|North Macedonia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Norway||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Oman||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Palestine||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Philippines||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Poland||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Portugal||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Qatar||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Russia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Serbia||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Singapore||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|South Africa||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|South Korea||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|South Sudan||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Spain||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Sudan||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Sweden||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Switzerland||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Taiwan||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Tanzania||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Thailand||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Tunisia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Turkey||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Uganda||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Ukraine||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|United Kingdom||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|United States||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Venezuela||75 / 100||0 / 100|
|Zimbabwe||100 / 100||75 / 100|