Does the country have an openly stated and effectively implemented anti-corruption policy for the defence sector?
7a. Anti-corruption policy
Tunisia score: 100/100
There is no anti-corruption policy, or there is one but it explicitly does not apply to the defence sector.
There is an openly stated anti-corruption policy, but it is unclear if it applies to the defence sector or the government is in process of developing one that applies to the defence sector.
There is an openly stated anti-corruption policy that applies to the defence sector.
Tunisia adopted a national strategy for good governance and fighting corruption (2016-2020) and an action plan (2017-2018) in December 2016 (1). The charter of this strategy was signed by the President of the Government, the President of the Anti-corruption Authority, the Vice-President of the Judiciary Authority and the President of the Journalists Union (2). The action plan of this strategy contains measures concerning security (establishment of islands of integrity in the security sector) and states that a sectorial action plan in the security sector will be established (1). However, this strategy and its action plan does not explicitely mention the defence sector nor the Ministry of Defence (3,4).
(1) “National strategy for fighting corruption (2016-2020) and its action plan (2017-2018).” December 2016. https://bit.ly/2Kes7IT
(2) “Tunisie: Signature de la stratégie nationale de lutte contre la corruption.” 9 December, 2016. https://bit.ly/2K6dadg
(3)Interview T1, Researcher, Tunis 10-12 July 2019.
(4)Interview T2, Army Officer, Tunis, 15-17 July 2019.
7b. Effective implementation
Tunisia score: 50/100
There is no action plan to implement the policy, nor have any actions been taken.
There is an action plan at the ministry level but it is superficial, and does not address the institutional weaknesses in the system, OR there efforts to implement an action plan at the national level.
There is an action plan at the ministry level that reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system, but no actions have been taken to implement it.
There is an action plan at the ministry level that reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system. While steps have been taken to implement the plan, it is either behind schedule, or implementation is not addressing the priority items in the action plan.
The action plan at the ministry level reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system, and implementation has progressed according to the estimated timeline.
According to our sources, there is an action plan within the Tunisian National Strategy for Good Governance and Fighting Corruption. The action plan, whilst it does not mention the defence sector, it does apply to it as part of the state’s department(1,2). This plan is unclear how it will be implemented within the MoD(1)
On 18 June 2019, a cooperation agreement was signed between the supervisory structures of the Ministry of National Defence and the High Instance for Administrative and Financial Control, which operates under the supervision of the Presidency of the Republic of Tunisia (3). The Ministry of National Defence has implemented the provisions of the Government Decree No. 1158, dated August the 12th 2016, on the Establishment of Governance Cells and their Control. Tunisia has adopted the action plan of the SNAC 2 project adopted by the European Union, through which the Tunisian State seeks to harmonise its national legislation with the European standards in the field of combating corruption. (4) The General Inspection of the Armed Forces follows a program with respect to the integrity assessment of the armed forces in cooperation with NATO (5). A cooperation and partnership agreement was signed with the National Anti-Corruption Commission on 17 September 2018 (6).
(1)Interview T1, Researcher, Tunis 10-12 July 2019.
(2)Interview T2, Army Officer, Tunis, 15-17 July 2019.
(3) Moasaic New, 2019. Agreement between MoD and IAFC-Tunis. 18 June 2019. Accessed 14 November 2019: https://bit.ly/2COv5k0
(4) COE 2015. Promotion of good governance: fight against corruption, money laundering, and terrorism (SNAC 2 – Tunisia”, https://www.coe.int/en/web/corruption/completed/snac2-tunisia [accessed 15/11/2019]
(5) Building Integrity Assessment with NATO, 2019.
(6) MoD 2019. MoU between MoD and ACC-Tunis. September 2018. Accessed 14 November 2019: http://www.press.defense.tn/?p=834
Compare scores by country
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|Country||7a. Anti-corruption policy||7b. Effective implementation|
|Albania||75 / 100||25 / 100|
|Algeria||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Angola||0 / 100||NA|
|Argentina||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Armenia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Australia||25 / 100||NA|
|Azerbaijan||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Bahrain||50 / 100||NA|
|Bangladesh||0 / 100||NA|
|Belgium||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Botswana||0 / 100||NA|
|Brazil||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Cameroon||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Canada||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Chile||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|China||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Colombia||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||100 / 100||0 / 100|
|Denmark||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Egypt||0 / 100||NA|
|Estonia||75 / 100||NA|
|Finland||25 / 100||NA|
|France||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Germany||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Ghana||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Greece||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Hungary||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|India||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Indonesia||50 / 100||NA|
|Iran||50 / 100||NA|
|Iraq||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Israel||50 / 100||75 / 100|
|Italy||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Japan||0 / 100||NA|
|Jordan||50 / 100||NEI|
|Kenya||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Kosovo||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Kuwait||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Latvia||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Lebanon||50 / 100||NA|
|Lithuania||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Malaysia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Mali||0 / 100||NA|
|Mexico||75 / 100||25 / 100|
|Montenegro||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Morocco||25 / 100||NA|
|Myanmar||0 / 100||NA|
|Netherlands||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|New Zealand||75 / 100||NEI|
|Niger||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Nigeria||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|North Macedonia||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Norway||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Oman||0 / 100||NA|
|Palestine||0 / 100||NA|
|Philippines||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Poland||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Portugal||0 / 100||NA|
|Qatar||0 / 100||NA|
|Russia||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Serbia||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Singapore||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|South Africa||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|South Korea||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|South Sudan||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Spain||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Sudan||0 / 100||NA|
|Sweden||25 / 100||NA|
|Switzerland||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Taiwan||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Tanzania||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Thailand||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Tunisia||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Turkey||0 / 100||NA|
|Uganda||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Ukraine||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||50 / 100||NA|
|United Kingdom||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|United States||25 / 100||NA|
|Venezuela||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Zimbabwe||100 / 100||NEI|