Are the policies, administration, and budgets of the intelligence services subject to effective and independent oversight?
Ukraine score: 50/100
There is considerable and regular undue influence in the oversight of the intelligence service’s policies, administration, and budgets. It is likely its mandate results in limited power and resources to carry out the oversight.
A parliamentary committee or independent body (e.g., appointed by PM) is designated to scrutinise the intelligence service’s policies, administration, and budgets. It may occasionally be subject to undue influence from the executive or the military or its mandate is not always matched by the body’s powers and resources.
A parliamentary committee or independent body (e.g., appointed by PM) is designated to scrutinise the intelligence service’s policies, administration, and budgets. It functions without undue influence from the executive or the military. Its mandate is matched by the body’s powers and resources.
The VRU Committee on National Security and Defence is only authorized to provide legislative support of the security services, intelligence and counterintelligence activities . This means that the committee can amend corresponding policies, bylaws, and can adopt corresponding budgets. However, its effectiveness suffers from resource constraints, including the involvement of experts to the committee, and it needs external support (both national and international) to further develop its competence and expertise . Additionally, there is a draft Law On National Security currently being debated by the VRU (as of May 3, 2018), if adopted it could also change the civilian democratic control over the intelligence .
1. “The VRU Resolution No. 22-VIII, On the list, the quantitative composition and the subjects of competence of the committees of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine of the eighth convocation,” Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, December 4, 2014, accessed April 12, 2018, http://zakon0.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/22-19.
2. Interviewee 1, active MoD officer, 2 May 2018, Kyiv.
3. “Draft Law No. 8068 On National Security of Ukraine,” Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, February 28, 2018, accessed May 3, 2018, http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb2/webproc4_1?pf3511=63531.
Ukraine score: 50/100
The oversight function has little to no influence over the intelligence services.
The oversight function does not have regular access to classified information. It may meet less frequently than every 6 months.
The oversight function has access to classified information and meets at least every 6 months to review budget and expenditures, personnel issues, and policies of the intelligence services. Findings are rarely published.
The oversight function has access to classified information and meets at least every 6 months to review budget and expenditures, personnel issues, and policies of the intelligence services. Though meetings are held behind closed doors, a summary of findings is published.
The oversight function has access to classified information and meets at least every 2 months to review budget and expenditures, personnel issues, and policies of the intelligence services. Though meetings are held behind closed doors, a summary of findings is published.
The MPs, including members of the VRU Committee on National Security and Defence, have access to classified information at all levels of secrecy, which is granted after a written commitment to maintain state secrets . There is evidence that the VRU Committee on National Security and Defence meets more or less every six months to discuss some issues and policies of intelligence services’ activities [2, 3, 4] but it is not empowered to scrutinize intelligence services .
11. The Law of Ukraine No, 3855-XII On State Secret,” Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, January 21, 1994, accessed May 3, 2018, http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/3855-12.
2. “Minutes of July 8, 2016,” Committee on National Security and Defence, accessed May 3, 2018. http://komnbo.rada.gov.ua/uploads/documents/30417.doc
3. “Minutes of January 18, 2017,” Committee on National Security and Defence, accessed May 3, 2018, http://komnbo.rada.gov.ua/uploads/documents/30434.doc.
4. “Information on joint committee hearings of the committees of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on issues of national security and defence, foreign affairs and European integration that took place on October 18, 2017,” Committee on National Security and Defence, accessed May 3, 2018, http://komnbo.rada.gov.ua/print/73267.html.
5. “Law of Ukraine On Intelligence Services of Ukraine, Article 24 and 25,” Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, accessed May 3, 2018, http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2331-14/ed20130609.
Compare scores by country
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|Country||21a. Independence||21b. Effectiveness|
|Albania||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Algeria||0 / 100||NA|
|Angola||0 / 100||NA|
|Argentina||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Armenia||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Australia||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Azerbaijan||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Bahrain||0 / 100||NA|
|Bangladesh||0 / 100||NA|
|Belgium||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Botswana||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Brazil||75 / 100||0 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||50 / 100||NEI|
|Cameroon||0 / 100||NA|
|Canada||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Chile||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|China||0 / 100||NA|
|Colombia||NEI||50 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||0 / 100||NA|
|Denmark||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Egypt||0 / 100||NA|
|Estonia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Finland||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|France||50 / 100||75 / 100|
|Germany||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Ghana||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Greece||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Hungary||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|India||0 / 100||NA|
|Indonesia||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Iran||0 / 100||NA|
|Iraq||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Israel||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Italy||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Japan||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Jordan||0 / 100||NA|
|Kenya||75 / 100||25 / 100|
|Kosovo||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Kuwait||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Latvia||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Lebanon||0 / 100||NA|
|Lithuania||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Malaysia||0 / 100||NA|
|Mali||0 / 100||NA|
|Mexico||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|Montenegro||50 / 100||75 / 100|
|Morocco||0 / 100||NA|
|Myanmar||0 / 100||NA|
|Netherlands||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|New Zealand||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Niger||0 / 100||NA|
|Nigeria||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|North Macedonia||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Norway||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Oman||0 / 100||NA|
|Palestine||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Philippines||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Poland||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Portugal||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Qatar||0 / 100||NA|
|Russia||25 / 100||50 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||0 / 100||NA|
|Serbia||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Singapore||0 / 100||NEI|
|South Africa||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|South Korea||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|South Sudan||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Spain||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Sudan||0 / 100||NA|
|Sweden||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Switzerland||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Taiwan||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Thailand||0 / 100||NA|
|Tunisia||0 / 100||NA|
|Turkey||0 / 100||NA|
|Uganda||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Ukraine||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||0 / 100||NA|
|United Kingdom||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|United States||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Venezuela||0 / 100||NA|
|Zimbabwe||0 / 100||NA|