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Q48.

Does regular anti-corruption training take place for military and civilian personnel?

48a. Comprehensiveness

Score

SCORE: 25/100

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48b. Regularity

Score

SCORE: 0/100

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48c. Coverage of personnel

Score

SCORE: 0/100

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For military personnel, anti-corruption training is provided through different courses and briefings included in educational and training programs [1]. However, training is superficial [2]. For the academic year 2018-2019, a more comprehensive approach was taken through the introduction into the curricula of the integrity building class [1]. The civilian staffs attend anti-corruption training that is provided by the Albanian School of Public Administration [3]. The training provided generally addresses the corruption, integrity, risk management and reporting [4].

Anti-corruption training for military personnel is not a well-structured process [1]. It is provided at the academy level and on ad hoc basis and it is also provided through international courses [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. For the civilian staff, the number of people attending is small and applies only to the staff hired under the law on civil servant (training provided by ASPA doesn’t involve civilian personnel hired based on the Labour Code), and the rank of civilian personnel attending is lower than the requirement of ASPA [1].

Formally the topic corruption is included in the different training courses, but courses are not structured by rank or service [1, 2]. There is some regularity in the training of civilian personnel; however, the number of civilian personnel is much smaller than the military personnel in the MoD, so the anti-corruption training is limited [1].

No information could be found that anti-corruption training for military or civilian personnel has taken place. A review of the official monthly magazine of the armed forces El-Djeich, which informs the public about activities within the military, including seminars, did not provide any evidence that there have been training between 2016 and 2018 (1). Nor does the website of the armed forces provide such information (2), there are no reports in the media that military personnel have been trained.

The only anti-corruption training that was found was conducted for bureaucrats. In 2016, the ONPLC had anti-corruption training and awareness-raising sessions for public officials and managers. According to the initiators, the training aimed to “master the basic rules of treaty texts, national legislation and regulations, discover the normative framework for the fight against corruption and master the rules and procedures relating to the declaration of assets.” These training should take place over three years (3).
According to the website of the ONPLC, the anti-corruption training targeted 10,000 public officials, mainly managers and employees exposed to corruption risks (4). There is no evidence that civilians working in the defence sector have been part of this training. The only other training within the security sector related to accountability found during the research was human rights training conducted for the Judicial Police from the DGSN and National Gendarmerie by the International Committee of the Red Cross (5).

This question has been scored Not Applicable because no information could be found in military sources that anti-corruption training for the military or civilian personnel has taken place (1), (2).

This question has been scored Not Applicable because no information could be found in military sources that anti-corruption training for military or civilian personnel has taken place (1), (2)

There is no evidence of more than occasional and ad hoc efforts to conduct anti-corruption training for defence personnel or public servants in Angola. Reports on occasional initiatives include the participation of military officials in training in the region, or more recently a training of trainers for ruling party members (1), (2).

There is no evidence of more than occasional and ad hoc efforts to conduct anti-corruption training for defence personnel or public servants in Angola. Reports on occasional initiatives include the participation of military officials in training in the region, or more recently a training of trainers for ruling party members (1), (2).

There is no evidence of more than occasional and ad hoc efforts to conduct anti-corruption training for defence personnel or public servants in Angola. Reports on occasional initiatives include the participation of military officials in training in the region, or more recently a training of trainers for ruling party members (1), (2).

The training of national public administration personnel in ethics, transparency, and the fight against corruption, is concentrated in the National Institute of Public Administration (INAP) or the Anti-Corruption Office. Both agencies cover several issues related to corruption, but are voluntary and personal. In the case of the Anti-Corruption Office, it offers the possibility to request training by mail or telephone for a specific jurisdiction. While ethics and the formation of values are part of the educational objectives of the three branches of the Armed Forces, there are no regular specific courses in the fight against corruption. In relation to the Ministry of Defence, the University of Defence and the teaching institutions of the Armed Forces do not offer regular training (specific courses) for civil and military personnel on corruption. There are some conferences on corruption prevention, but these are sporadic or not published. [1] [2] [3] [4] The training courses of military personnel, for example in the National Military College, have a trajectory in the dictation of matters related to transparency and ethical values. [5]

This indicator has been scored Not Applicable. Beyond the fact that ethics and the formation of values are part of the educational objectives of the three branches of the Armed Forces, there are no regular specific courses in the fight against corruption. It is evident that the training on the theme of the fight against corruption is external to the defence jurisdiction (INAP and Anti-Corruption Office) and that participation in these is voluntary. There is no evidence on the official pages or in the media that there are regular trainings aimed at civil and military personnel of the defence jurisdiction. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

The choice of receiving courses is primarily voluntary and through agencies outside the defence jurisdiction, such as the INAP and the Anti-Corruption Office. [1] [2] [3] Conferences on issues of public ethics and the fight against corruption are sporadic or are within the professional training of military personnel in compulsory courses. [4] [5]

The Centre for Human Rights and Integrity of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) is designed to also provide training to other sub-divisions of the ministry. The centre is also the focal point for international partners to coordinate training initiatives [1].
Within the framework of NATO Defense Education Enhancement Program (DEEP) at the Military University after Vazgen Sargsyan and the Military Aviation University after A. Khanperyants of the MoD of RA a pilot program “Good Governance and Integrity” was introduced, which was already lectured this year among the newly admitted students and was introduced in the curriculum of 4-year students as a core subject. The Civil servants (including those involved in anti-corruption work) also undergo anti-corruption training in accordance with the program and timetable developed by the RA Ministry of Justice.
Most of the topics covered in the program address corruption, its impact on the country’s economic and political development and focus on preventing corruption in the defense sector through increased individual responsibility. [2]

Training on integrity of the RA Armed Forces may be divided into several directions:
In cooperation with and support of NATO Building Integrity Program [1] and the Defense Education Enhancement Program, a compulsory subject “Integrity and Good Governance” was introduced in the higher-education institutions of the RA MoD (Military University after V. Sargsyan, Military Aviation University after A. Khanperyants), which is first taught as an introduction to newly admitted cadets (as a part of induction training), and in the 4th year, it is taught at a more advanced level. The main purpose of this is to make education on integrity (or as it is called in the questionnaire – code of conduct) part of the officers’ training program, as the idea that strengthening the integrity of the armed forces presupposes the transformation of personal behavior and the development of personal responsibility.
The subject “Integrity and Good Governance” will be included in the qualification courses of officers at MoD Higher Education Institutions and will be taught in V. Sargsyan Military University’s Command and Staff Department (starting September 2020). The subject was included in the program of the academic departmental course at the National Defense Research University of the RA MoD. [2]

Training on integrity of the RA Armed Forces may be divided into several directions:
In cooperation with and support of NATO Building Integrity Program [1] and the Defense Education Enhancement Program, a compulsory subject “Integrity and Good Governance” was introduced in the higher-education institutions of the RA MoD (Military University after V. Sargsyan, Military Aviation University after A. Khanperyants), which is first taught as an introduction to newly admitted cadets (as a part of induction training), and in the 4th year, it is taught at a more advanced level. The main purpose of this is to make education on integrity (or as it is called in the questionnaire – code of conduct) part of the officers’ training program, as the idea that strengthening the integrity of the armed forces presupposes the transformation of personal behavior and the development of personal responsibility.
The subject “Integrity and Good Governance” will be included in the qualification courses of officers at MoD Higher Education Institutions and will be taught in V. Sargsyan Military University’s Command and Staff Department (starting September 2020). The subject was included in the program of the academic departmental course at the National Defense Research University of the RA MoD. [2]

The nature of training in corruption issues available to personnel is unclear. Defence documents allude to “mandatory and focused training” to “promote… a strong ethical culture” in the context of fraud and anti-corruption [1]. While the 2012-13 Defence Annual Report contained specific statistics of how many defence personnel undertook “ethics and fraud awareness” training and the detail that this training was mandatory at least biennially [2], these figures and detail have been omitted from more recent Annual Reports. Defence clearly expects all personnel to act “ethically” [3], which is defined in a matter that encompasses non-corrupt behaviour (like acting appropriately when dealing with conflicts of interest and not seeking private benefits through official actions [4]). With key documents such as the Fraud and Ethics Awareness Training Options and Ethics Matters no longer being publicly available (their one-time existence confirmed in a 2011 Transparency International report [5] and the 2015 Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index [6]), it is impossible to ascertain the quality and comprehensiveness of participation in corruption issues training. Australia offers a peacekeeper training online course through the Peace Operations Training Institute, for which one required course is titled “Ethics in Peacekeeping” [7]. One interviewee said that, to their knowledge, modules on ethics (and anti-corruption as a component of ethics) were a very large part of training for operations, including for commanders [8].

The regularity with which training in corruption issues is offered to personnel Is unclear. Defence documents allude to “mandatory and focused training” to “promote… a strong ethical culture” in the context of fraud and anti-corruption [1]. While the 2012-13 Defence Annual Report contained specific statistics of how many defence personnel undertook “ethics and fraud awareness” training and the detail that this training was mandatory at least biennially [2], these figures and detail have been omitted from more recent Annual Reports. With key documents such as the Fraud and Ethics Awareness Training Options and Ethics Matters no longer being publicly available (their previous existence confirmed by the to in a 2011 Transparency International report [3] and the 2015 Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index [4]), it is impossible to ascertain the regularity of participation in specifically corruption issues training. One interviewee said that, to their knowledge, modules on ethics (and anti-corruption as a component of ethics) were a very large part of training for operations [5]. An expert respondent indicated that anti-corruption training was an key part of training for operations, and the Defence Annual Report indicates that “mandatory and focused training” on anti-corruption issues is a part of the Defence personnel’s obligations.

The coverage of personnel when training on corruption issues is not entirely clear; however, the latest Defence Annual Report indicates that there is a policy of “mandatory and focused training” to “promote… a strong ethical culture” in the context of fraud and anti-corruption [1]. The 2012-13 Defence Annual Report said that ethics and fraud awareness training was “mandatory for all Defence personnel and must be completed at least” biannually [2]. More recent Defence Annual Reports do not mention whether all personnel must participate in the training or whether the training must be undertaken every 2 years. Anti-corruption has become a key component of the policy on ethics and fraud control training, but it is unclear if the anti-corruption training is a small portion of the ethics and fraud control modules or is even still mandatory for all Defence personnel, and the Defence Annual Report 2017-18 does not elucidate on this [1]. A 2017 Army News report indicated that “the [Defence] Fraud Control and Investigations Branch is undertaking face-to-face training [with Defence personnel] across Australia” on key issues of fraud, corruption, and unethical conduct, but it is unclear how wide the group is that receives this training [3]. One interviewee said that, to their knowledge, modules on ethics (and anti-corruption as a key component of ethics) were a very large part of training for operations [4].

There is no information on conducting regular anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel. But newly created Anti-Corruption Academy (NGO) in Azerbaijan has begun anti-corruption training for employees of the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (in 2018) (1).
Research shows that anti-corruption propaganda in military units is not strictly exercised, and the level of awareness of military personnel, as well as civilians, is not satisfactory. The military does not provide information on this regularly, and there is no transparency. There are only a few statements by officials from the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and other military organizations about events related to anti-corruption measures.
According to the Vagif Dargahli (2), spokesman of the MoD, some of the tasks in the National Action Plan on Combating Corruption are under the authority of the MoD. “For the first time in the implementation of the “National Action Plan for the Prevention of Corruption for 2012-2015,” legal awareness-raising events, conversations, lessons, and anonymous opinion polls are being organized with the staff. To carry out the activities envisaged in the Action Plan, MoD officials are within military units and at the same time, the relevant military commissions, inspections, revisions work in military units.
According to Arzu Rahimov, Head of the State Service for Mobilization and Conscription, the Action Plan against Corruption was prepared and approved by the Service in connection with the implementation of the “National Action Plan for 2012-2015 on Combating Corruption.” Implementation of the proposed measures was ensured (3).
Colonel of Justice of the Defence Ministry, Colonel Rauf Kishiyev, said in his interview to the “Army of Azerbaijan” (4) that, many factors have an impact on reducing the number of crimes. “awareness-raising campaigns of commanders and commanders, preventive measures for prevention of crimes and incidents, education of the personnel in the spirit of respect for the law, the improper application of the principle of impunity, the increasing legal culture of servicemen and other factors contribute to the reduction of crime”. Azerbaijan participates in various events within the framework of cooperation with NATO, where anti-corruption steps are being discussed. In recent years, Azerbaijani military personnel have participated in the CIDS’s course on Building Integrity (BI) Institutional Enhancement (5).
According to experts, if anti-corruption exercises are held in the security and defense sector of Azerbaijan, they are superficial and do not cover any specific areas of struggle (fight against bribery, etc.) (6).

This indicator has been marked Not Applicable. The MoD and other military organizations do not provide any information on the continuity of the training. There is no information on their official websites either (1). The newly created Anti-Corruption Academy (NGO) in Azerbaijan has begun anti-corruption training for employees of the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (in 2018) (2). Studies show that military organizations do not seem to be interested in implementing these types of measures, because serious corruption cases occur in those structures (3, 4).

The “anti-corruption” measures taken at the MoD and other military units include more small groups, inter-officers conversations. They are not regular, serious training exercises(1).
As for training in foreign countries, the criteria for personnel involved in these training are not clearly defined in the MoD and other military organizations. There are no rules on the involvement of high-risk staff in this training. Those with low-risk positions usually take part in many of the training exercises held in foreign countries. The newly created Anti-Corruption Academy (NGO) in Azerbaijan began anti-corruption training for employees of the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (in 2018) (2). Similar training was also held for employees of the State Migration Service. It is clear from the photos posted on Facebook that mainly middle-ranking officers participated in the training (3).

There is no anti-corruption training within the military, or for civilian personnel who work within the Ministry of Defence (MoD) [1, 2, 3, 4].

As outlined in 48A, there are no anti-corruption training within the MoD or Bahrain’s Defence Force [1, 2, 3, 4]. This indicator has therefore been marked ‘Not Applicable’.

As outlined in 48A, there are no anti-corruption training within the MoD or Bahrain’s Defence Force [1, 2, 3, 4]. This indicator has therefore been marked ‘Not Applicable’.

As all ministries are now committed to implementing the National Integrity Strategy, the Ministry of Defence also organises periodic training on anti-corruption [1]. However, the content of this training is generic in nature and limited to organisational values and behavioural integrity. At Bangladesh Military Academy, no formal training is provided on anti-corruption. At the National Defence College, the training content is limited to broader governance issues. In other ministries, anti-corruption training is part of the respective NIS Work Plan and implemented as a matter of routine. The Anti-Corruption Commission also conducts regular anti-corruption training for government officials.

According to the NIS Work Plan, ministries are required to carry out at least 5 anti-corruption training events throughout the year. The Ministry of Defence and other ministries also regularly implement this training because a performance score is allocated for this activity, as per the Annual Performance Agreements [1] made between the Cabinet Division and the respective ministries and divisions.

It is worth mentioning here that all officials of the MoD are members of the Bangladesh Civil Service. Those in entry-level positions, starting from Assistant Secretary, must attend the mandatory Foundation Training at the Bangladesh Public Administration Training Centre (BPATC). One of the topics in this foundation training course is Public Administration and Governance, which carries 50 marks [2]. For mid-level civil and military officials with the rank of Deputy Secretary or equivalent, there is another course offered in workshop format, entitled Advanced Course on Administration and Development, which covers two topics: a) Improving Transparency and Accountability in Governance: National Integrity Strategy (NIS) Perspective and b) Accountability Tools for Fair and Results-Based Governance: Citizen Charter; Annual Performance Agreement; Grievance Redress Mechanism and Right to Information [3]. For policy-level civil and military officials, the BPATC runs a Senior Staff Course covering the theme of Public Sector Governance. It focusses on topics such as: a) Corruption and Unethical Practices in Governance and Development: Exploring the Combatting Strategies and b) National Integrity Strategy: A Diagnostic Analysis of the Implementation Challenges [4].

Training is integrated as part of the NIS implementation framework and is not mandatory for all ranks, either in the military or civil service [1,2].

Anti-corruption training addresses the connection between corruption, organisational values, impact of the organisation, military effectivenes, identification and reporting of corruption, and risk management [1]. However, further detailed information on the training curriculum is not publicly available [2].

This training is provided upon entry to any position that is directly or indirectly related to procurement. Regular reminder sessions are held [1]. However, further detailed information on the training curriculum is not publicly available [2].

Training depends on the content the individual will work with during her/his stationing rather than the rank. Anti-corruption training is thus delivered to personnel at each rank bracket of the military and civilian personnel, depending on the position [1]. However, (detailed) information on the training curriculum is not publicly available [2].

The Ministry of Defence (MoD) and the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AFBiH) periodically organize anti-corruption training for military and civilian persons, and performers are representatives of the MoD General Inspectorate and the inspectors of the commands and units of AF BiH, who are in the MoD and OS BiH carrying out activities related to building integrity and fighting corruption[1]. Corruption topics are being held in these lectures which are also related to the following topics: Organizational Values and Standards, Organization Impact, Military Effectiveness, Identification and Reporting on Corruption and Risk Management [2, 3, 4]. Within the Peace Support Operations Training Center, two NATO accredited courses are conducted which refer to the Code of Conduct and Integrity. The Human Resources Sector collects candidates’ proposals and points to courses on corruption and anti-corruption courses as well as on courses that take place within bilateral co-operation mentioned topics [1].

MoD and AFBiH training in the field of ethics, integrity and anti-corruption is planned and carried out based on the target group (military personnel AFBiH’s commands and units, inspectors as a group of experts; MoD civilian personnel). In the four different training modules in this field, there were in total 6185 attendees.
In addition to the mentioned, training in the fight against corruption is carried out with specific target groups deemed to be at an increased risk of corruption. For example, one-and-a-half-hour training was provided to two such groups in 2018. One group comprised 20 officers who were assigned as evaluators of candidates in phase 2 of the process of recruitment of persons to professional military service. The second group comprised 64 candidates for recruitment to professional military service for the initial rank of an officer [1, 2].

Corruption training is also done with specially selected groups that are assessed to be exposed to the greater risk of corruption [1].

According to the government reviewer, the MoD and AFBiH plan and organize trainings in the area of ​​integrity, prevention and fight against corruption for all employees, as well as for personnel enrolled in Peace Support Operations (OPM). Training is provided by the MoD GI and the system of inspectors in commands and units as well as the training conducted at the OPM Center (PSOTC). The inspectors of the MoD GI conduct training in the area of ​​integrity and prevention and fight against corruption in the PSOTC for each rotation of units and staff officers and NCOs and for the last rotation of OPM candidates in the Central African Republic (CAR) on 19.3.2020. In addition, during 2019, the PSOTC was involved in pre-training training for AFM / peacekeeping AFB members:
– NATO-led Determined Support Mission in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (Staff Officers and NCOs: 40 Deputies; Military Police Team – 30 Deputies; EOD Team – 30 Deputies)
– UN-led peacekeeping missions (MONUSCO in DRC – military observers / 6 trainees; MINUSMA in the Republic of Mali – staff officers / 3 trainees)
– EU-led Training Mission (EUTM) in the Central African Republic (Officers and NCOs / 6 trainees)
Furthermore, As part of pre-training training for AFBiH members, there are several presentations that cover integrity building in OPM/peacekeeping missions:
– Integrity, Code of Conduct and Challenges for Integrity in OPM
– Gender Equality and the Prevention of Sexual Settlement in OPM (Part One deals with Code of Conduct)
– Protecting civilians (one part relates to a Code of Conduct)
In addition, the PSOTC actively supported the training of key EUFOR staff in the area of ​​integrity building three times during the year, in cooperation with the Office of the Inspector General of the Ministry of Defence and the Anti-Corruption and Anti-Corruption Agency. Finally, in cooperation with the NATO Integrity Building Team, the PSOTC supported the development of this NATO discipline throughout 2019 by participating in various events such as the Annual Integrity Building Conference and Workgroup Workshops [2].
The PSOTC, in cooperation with representatives of the NATO Integrity Building Program during the second half of 2018 and in 2019, designed, developed and implemented a pilot course for Integrity Building Instructors for employees of the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Northern Macedonia and the Army of the Republic of Northern Macedonia. The intention is for the course to be certified by NATO ACT and implemented in the future as a residential PSOTC course for trainers from the AFBiH. In addition to the GI training, the General Inspectorate in the MoD and AFBiH conducts training with over 6000 members of the MoD and AFBiH each year in the fields of integrity, professionalism and ethics, prevention of corruption, etc. In 2019, there were 6,221 members of the MoD and AFBiH in training.

In conclusion, the MoD and the AFBiH have clear doctrinal and implementing acts, and the organization and staff carry out measures through the chain of command and the system of inspectors, including training on prevention and protection against corruption in the MoD and AFBiH.

Anti-corruption training for civil personnel is conducted by the Directorate of Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC) [1]. There is no evidence of anti-corruption training tailor made for the military [2].

Anti-corruption training is not scheduled but it is conducted on ad hoc basis [1]. In addition, it is also done upon request to the DCEC [2].

Regular anti-corruption training for the military and civilian personnel is not carried out by a specific program [1]. It is discretionary at the expedience of the DCEC [2].

The Transparency Report of the Ministry of Defence mentions general anti-corruption courses instructed by the National School of Public Administration (ENAP – Escola Nacional de Administração Pública), and the Administrative Finance School (EAF – Escola de Administração Fazendária). The report does not say how many military personnel undertook these anti-corruption courses; none of them were focused specifically on defence issues [1]. However, all military officials that command an independent unit (either a Platoon/ship or a division/district/Wing) receive specific training in corruption issues – not under this name, but under the name of “Intendência” training (a mix of logistics, finances and accountability). This training is also the core of the military academies, or schools, especially for those who are from the Branch of ‘Intendência”. Decree 98.820 of 1990 [2], approves the Administrative Regulations of the Army (Regulamento Administrativo do Exército), establishing fiscal responsibilities of commanders of units.

There is no evidence of specific anti-corruption training for defence personnel [1, 2]; however, the annual Code of Conduct training covers some aspects of anti-corruption [3], in addition to the training mentioned in Question 48A.

According to the news collected in the single forces’ websites, most of the specific anti-corruption training is given to officials who work with internal control and with procurements [1, 2, 3], but the Code of Conduct training covers all branches [4].

No anti-corruption capacity building for both military and civilian personnel of the defence ministry takes place. The anti-corruption training sessions that often take place concern the gendarmerie, the police and non-defence ministry civilians working on corruption-related issues (1). This would also mean that MoD military and civilian employees do not often come together to discuss corruption; whereas, they are both being appointed regularly. The lack of joint capacity building sessions on corruption, aligning both types of personnel for sharing information and learning about corruption, coupled with the opacity of the MoD (2), results in widespread corruption (3).

UNODC reported that “UNODC technically supports these defence and security forces. Part of this support focuses on capacity building in terms of developing strategies to promote integrity and the fight against corruption within these services” (1). From 22 to 23 March 2017, a national workshop on “Police, Gendarmerie and Customs: integrity and combating corruption” was organized in Ouagadougou, in cooperation with the High Authority for State Control and Anti-Corruption (in French, “Autorité Supérieure de Contrôle de l’Etat et de Lutte contre la Corruption”, ASCE-LC). This workshop gathered Burkinabe national police and gendarmerie officers, as well as officers from customs services. Having participants serving at the border and in internal areas gave the workshop a wider coverage on the national level. This will allow for the development of more realistic and pertinent strategies. Civil society also took part in the workshop. The National Network for the Fight Against Corruption (Réseau National de Lutte Anti-Corruption – REN-LAC) presented the main findings of its research conducted since 2000, and contributed to lead the workshop, along with UNODC and the ASCE-LC.” (1). It is done in an ad hoc manner and only provided by donors.

No evidence was found (1).

The Military Security Division known as SEMIL is charged with training in ethics and the deontology of the military. This unit brings together staff from all the services of the military and is found in all the regions and battalions of the military. The training includes military code of conduct [1]. Ecole Militaire Interarmées (EMIA) is a military academy that trains military officers from entry to mid-career development in different military skills and different departments (army, B.I.R. and gendarmerie) [2]. There is insufficient evidence of how comprehensively corruption and related disciplinary offences are covered during the training in EMIA. However, corruption is not taught as part of regular training within the defence and security sectors and is surely not done so comprehensively and effectively [1] [3]. This can be evidenced by a GAN report of 2017 that states, “Cameroon’s police force is inefficient, poorly trained and plagued by corruption” [4].

Cameroon police and military personnel supporting peacekeeping activities around the world, especially in Africa, undertake mandatory pre-deployment training, including in ethics and peacekeeping operations, corruption, sexual abuse, exploitation, human rights and other international humanitarian law [5]. In addition, there are Concepts of Operations (CONOP) which peacekeepers are to function by. The Status of Force Agreement (SOFA) signed by the home government and the UN handles corruption-related issues. Although corruption is not covered on its own in a course all these elements address corruption and corruption-related issues, according to the Peace Operation Training Institute. During this training, acts of discipline and disciplinary measures are highlighted as the defining elements that constitute the success of these missions [5].

Also, the New York Times has reported, “General Waldhauser pointed out that the American military has provided training on the law of war and ethics to the elite Cameroonian counterterrorism forces fighting Boko Haram. He also said the military was taking its cues from the State Department” [6].

There is no evidence which indicates that there is systematic and thorough anti-corruption training [1] [2]. Corruption is addressed in an ad hoc manner, such as the few courses in ethics and peacekeeping [2] and in the military penal code [3].

Ecole Militaire Interarmées (EMIA) is a military academy that trains military officers from entry to mid-career development in different military skills and different departments (army, B.I.R. and gendarmerie) [4]. There is insufficient evidence of how comprehensively corruption and related disciplinary offences are covered during the training in EMIA. However, corruption is not taught as part of regular training within the defence and security sectors and is surely not done so comprehensively and effectively [3] [5]. This can be evidenced by a GAN report of 2017 that states, “Cameroon’s police force is inefficient, poorly trained and plagued by corruption” [6].

Cameroon police and military personnel supporting peacekeeping activities around the world, especially in Africa, undertake mandatory pre-deployment training, including in ethics and peacekeeping operations, corruption, sexual abuse, exploitation, human rights and other international humanitarian law [2].

Cameroon has for the past four years received training from the United States and France in a wide range of issues to help it combat the Boko Haram threat and maritime insecurity [1] [2]. Furthermore, the International School for Security has refresher courses at Diploma and Master’s levels in peacekeeping and homeland security. Some basic ethical issues such as sexual exploitation and corruption-related issues are covered in some of their courses. However, only a handful of police and gendarmerie officers selected through a competitive entrance exam benefit from such training [3]. Corruption-related issues are also addressed in the pre-deployment training given to the different contingents sent out on peacekeeping missions [3].

Additionally, the New York Times reported, “General Waldhauser pointed out that the American military has provided training on the law of war and ethics to the elite Cameroonian counterterrorism forces fighting Boko Haram. He also said the military was taking its cues from the State Department” [4]. From the report, it seems only elite Cameroonian counterterrorism forces fighting Boko Haram received such training.

There is weak public sector ethics training. Aside from the code of values which (civilian) employees must sign as a condition of employment, [1] the idea of disclosing wrongdoing (either actual or perceived) is brushed over and does not comprise a central focus of the training that does exist. [2]

There is no regular anti-corruption training for all military and civilian personnel. [1] However, there is some cultural training for Canadian Forces (CF) members prior to deployment, which may, but is not guaranteed to, address instances of corruption or the likelihood that members may encounter corruption.[ 2] The Assistant Deputy Minister (Materiel) lists several challenges and mitigation strategies to deliver materiel and services required by the CAF, but there is no clear information about anti-corruption training. [3]

Coverage of personnel is inconsistent and circumstantial. [1] [2]

There is no evidence that regular anti-corruption training takes place for military and civilian personnel. After the fraud and corruption scandals in the armed forces, the Ministry of National Defence, the army, and other institutions implemented a set of measures to strengthen integrity and transparency [1]. This agenda had an emphasis on strengthening institutional control mechanisms and internal oversight; however, it overlooked anti-corruption training programs for personnel. Although the army, and then the air force and the navy, worked on the elaboration of ethical guidelines, delivering “valuable references that reinforce the conduct and military character of its members,” these efforts pointed to general standards and values and did not specifically address corruption-related practices [2, 3, 4, 5].

This indicator is marked ‘Not Applicable’. Although ethics and military norms have been incorporated into formal education and training programs, there is no evidence that specific anti-corruption training is provided [1]. Training only related to broad ethical principles instead of clear and specific guidelines to control and report corruption. Commentators have also criticised the consistent application of these principles. Given that there is no anti-corruption training for military and civilian defence personnel [2, 3, 4, 5].

Given that there is no anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel, this indicator is marked ‘Not Applicable’ [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].

Two anticorruption training paths in the PLA can be identified. The first concerns professional anticorruption training, targeting officers and specialised personnel in relevant institutions. In 2011, China’s National Defence University established the “Armed Forces Theoretical Research Center on Fighting Corruption and Building Clean Administration”. [1,2] The second path concerns Party members, mainly army officers. Before 2016, the Political Work Department under the CMC was exclusively in charge of political indoctrination and normative training covering a broad range of topics, including anticorruption. Since 2016, the CMC Discipline Inspection Commission is actively involved in anticorruption training and it appears that it has taken over from the PWD. From online announcements we know that training on the CCP’s policies on anticorruption take place down to the unit level. [3] Regarding content, the topics covered for both paths include: the application of big data in discipline inspection work; prominent problems found in auditing and countermeasures against their causes; and strengthening the construction of a clean and honest governance culture. [4,5]

Information on the regularity of training is not available. However, given the high degree of institutionalisation around military education (in the National Defence University) it can be safely assumed that it takes place at least as frequently as described in sub-indicator 2. The National Defence University has no website or publicly available information on its curriculum, research centres etc. The only exception is the International College of Defence Studies, which publishes some basic information on its activities and training sessions in relation to foreign students. [1]

Given the existence of two different types of anticorruption training in the PLA (professional and political work-based) it can be assumed that all officers and soldiers receive at least a basic understanding of corruption as an issue area. [1,2] There is broad coverage and an overall intensity in the implementation of the anticorruption campaign in the PLA by the CCP, especially since 2016. [3,4]

In the defence sector, anti-corruption training is carried out regularly for civilian and military personnel. Since 2014, training processes in integrity and corruption prevention have been carried out. According to the Ministry of Defence, “training includes legal, ethical and practical aspects of conduct as officials, as of 2018 the Ministry had reported 220,000 officials among trained civilians and military personnel.” [1] As a part of the NATO Collaboration agenda, the defence sector has participated in different training processes, such as the exchange of experiences and knowledge on issues of integrity, transparency, and prevention of corruption in Brussels in 2018, and has participated with other military academies in Europe. Interviewee 3 reports that being part of NATO has allowed the defence sector to improve integrity building processes through training of high-ranking officers with other military forces, such as Germany, Bosnia Herzegovina, the United Kingdom, Norway, and the United States. [2] Between 2016 and 2019, four NATO seminar courses have been held in collaboration with the United Kingdom’s Defence Academy for Officers of Higher Military Studies, and Colonels seeking promotion; and four NATO courses for Defence Sector Management such as the “Strengthening for Senior Leaders,” from the U.K. Defence Academy, which included teaching good practice in security administration in complex scenarios; and the anti-corruption strategy program, Building Integrity. [3, 4, 5] According to the report Transparency and Integrity from the Ministry of Defence, courses have been held for Generals, Officers and sub-officers at the Shrivenham Military Academies of the United Kingdom and the Training Center in Support of Peace Operations of Bosnia Herzegovina in collaboration with the Colombian Superior War School. [1]

The Directorate for the Application of Transparency Standards of the National Army (DANTE) and the DEDALO Plan provide education, training, and facilitation on issues of integrity and transparency, with a variety of seminars and a radio station used to disseminate transparency regulations. [6] DANTE allows uniformed personnel to be trained in topics which have been designed around military values, military effectiveness, reduction of risks of corruption, and conflicts of interest. Many of these trainings are compulsory in military and police schools. [7] Despite this effort, Interviewee 5 reports that there is a lack of greater training within the Armed Forces. Interviewee 5 states that due to extensive regulations on anti-corruption issues, it is difficult for public officials to understand and identify responsibilities completely. In total, there are 15 standards that identify, sanction, and regulate practices that may represent a risk of corruption in public management. [8] Interviewee 6 states that despite the existence of multiple trainings, serious human rights violations and scandals related to corruption crimes persist. Interviewee 6 also insists on the existence of widespread practices and corruption networks within the Armed Forces. [9] Reports and levels of complaints regarding possible cases of corruption in the SIRI have increased, which could represent a greater record and recognition of these behaviours, leading to their processing in accordance with existing regulations. [3]

The defence sector regularly provides anti-corruption training for its civilian and military, with Decree 2641 of 2012 stipulating that Anti-Corruption Plans and monitoring may include training provisions. [1] DANTE generates corruption prevention plans annually, and designs and disseminates material for officers and sub-officers in the various training schools of the Army. This material is also used in the promotion course, held annually in accordance with cycle of promotions, June and December for officers, and March and September for sub-officials and executive level staff. [2] With the support of NATO, officers who are promoted to Colonels and/or Generals can participate in trainings at different universities and academies globally such as: the Military Academy of Shrivenham of the United Kingdom, the Training Centre in Support for Peace Operations of Bosnia Herzegovina, and the U.K. Defence Academy. These include four courses for officers of Superior Military Studies (Colonels that are promoted to Generals), four courses for management personnel in the defence sector, and strengthening programmes for senior leaders. [3] There has also been the “Generation of Integrity in Peace Support Operations” and a regional course on Latin America in the Building Integrity programme. [3]

In terms of personnel coverage, anti-corruption training is provided to personnel in each military rank and civilian personnel, following the principles and values contained in the ethical codes of each entity, and the regulations set out in the General Inspection Regulations of the Forces. According to the Ministry of Defence during the period 2014-2018 a total of 15,391 public servants were trained in integrity and prevention of corruption, of which 1,959 correspond to the Air Force; 2,683 to the National Navy; 7,567 to the National Army; 1,697 to the National Police; 863 to the Social and Business Group of Defence; and 849 to the General Management Unit. [1] 220,000 uniformed officers and civilians participated in trainings on integrity and the prevention of corruption. Since 2012, nearly 20,000 civilian public servants of the Ministry of Defence, Military Forces, and National Police have been trained under the campaign “In the Ministry of Defence We Act with Transparency”. [2,3]

Anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel at the MoD is superficial and appears to cover only general values and standards. There is no evidence that such training addresses more complex issues like reporting cases of corruption. In the aftermath of the post-election crisis of 2010-2011, politics in Côte d’Ivoire were internationalized; and the UN peacekeeping force (UNOCI) organized anti-corruption awareness-raising events along with UNDP and NGOs such as the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) and the Bertelsmann’s Foundation. These can be characterized as having been general anti-corruption sessions for the general public and some officers in the Armed Forces. The government has paid for broad-based training, not necessarily on anti-corruption, for several former rebel commanders (COMZONES) and regular soldiers at military academies in Morocco. The sending of high-ranking military personnel and regular soldiers for training abroad is provided for in the 2016-2020 Military Planning Act (Loi de Programmation Militaire, LPM) (1).

In July 2017, Ivorian public television (RTI) uploaded a video to YouTube about a visit by Minister of Defense Hamed Bakayoko and General Sékou Toure to a military academy in southern Morocco (Centre d’Instruction Zone Sud, Dakhla) where 662 Ivorian military officers were being trained. However, there was no reference to anti-corruption training. Instead, the training appeared to be focused on combat techniques (2). Coverage of the event by Ivorian media characterized the training in Morocco as a capacity-building opportunity and an attempt to professionalize the armed forces (3). An example of anti-corruption training for the public administration initiated by civil society groups was done in an August 23, 2018 workshop by the Jeune Chambre Internationale (JCI) of Abidjan. JCI initiated its awareness-raising campaign in May 2018 to inform people dealing with public officials about how corrupt practices are defined in Order No. 2013-660, and the codewords and expressions used to extract bribes such as “Donne pour moi”, “Parle français” or “Fais mon gué”. However, this campaign did not target the MoD, military and civilian personnel (4). The evidence that most of the current training for the MoD personnel, including the training for soldiers in Morocco, does not focus on anti-corruption issues.

Anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel appears to be mainly driven by multilateral organizations and NGOs. It also appears to be completely ad hoc and the regularity of such training can be described as sporadic. For example, a workshop focused on corruption in public finance was organized by the African Development Bank (AfDB) in Abidjan on 27-28 October 2016. The AfDB event appears to have focused on strengthening the capacity of financial intelligence units in West Africa to fight money laundering and terrorist finance. It illustrates the type of ad hoc anti-corruption training provided by multilateral organizations (1). There is no reference in the interim self-evaluation report on the 2016-2018 National Open Government Action Plan by the Open Government Partnership (Partenariat pour un Gouvernement Ouvert, OGP) to anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel. Côte d’Ivoire was formally admitted as an OGP member on October 28, 2015. The report refers to scheduled initiatives on governance issues with the Ministry of the Interior (Minstere de l’Intérieur et de la Sécurité) through August 27, 2017, but there are no similar initiatives at the MoD (2).

Another example of the ad hoc and sporadic nature of anti-corruption training is the dissemination workshop organized by the HABG and the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) on November 17, 2015, with public administration officials across government ministries. According to the Secretary-General of the HABG, Yves Yao Kouame, it served to publicize the country’s anti-corruption laws and prevention policies among public officials, including UNCAC, the African Union’s anti-corruption initiative and Order No. 2013-660 (3). Given that most of the evidence for anti-corruption initiatives targeting military personnel are related to the early retirement and ousting of former rebel leaders accused of being behind the soldier uprisings of 2017, a score of 0 for this indicator reflects the lack of regularity of broad-based anti-corruption training for the rest of the military and civilian personnel at the MoD.

It is ad-hoc and sporadic nature of anti-corruption dissemination workshops and awareness-raising initiatives in Côte d’Ivoire. There is no evidence that these events target specific higher-ranking military or civilian personnel, as in the criteria for scores of 4 and 3. There is also no evidence that personnel in high-risk positions benefit from these initiatives, as mentioned in the criteria for a score of 2.

The example mentioned in 48B of the anti-corruption dissemination workshop organized by the HABG and the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) on November 17, 2015, with public administration officials across government ministries illustrates how a general public of civil servants was targeted rather than higher-ranking personnel (1). A second example to illustrate the ad-hoc, sporadic nature of anti-corruption training is the workshop set up by HABG on September 4, 2015, at the headquarters of the Maison de l’Entreprise in Plateau, the business district of Abidjan. The title of the workshop (La vulgarisation des textes relatifs à la prévention et à la lutte contre la corruption et les infractions assimilées) reveals the generalist approach of these anti-corruption events and the fact that it was addressed at a general public (2).

There is no evidence that personnel – both civilian and military – receive any anti-corruption training [1, 2]. This was confirmed by a source [3].However, following the recent cases of fraud and incapacity within the Defence, the Minister of Defence has ordered all 500 senior leaders (civil and military) in Danish Defence to enrol on a basic public administration course [4]. Such training is compulsory. [5]

Currently, it can be argued that training is undertaken on an ad hoc basis [1].

Civilian and military employees working with public administration need to complete basic online courses based on the general Code of Conduct for the Public Sector on the public sectors education site ‘Campus’. There are different basic courses addressing relevant themes in relation to the employees specific function and tasks, e.g. conflicts of interests, gifts etc. There are also equivalent online courses available on the Defence’s Electronic School. [1].
Moreover, following the recent cases of fraud and incapacity within the Defence, the Minister of Defence has ordered all 500 senior leaders (civil and military) in Danish Defence enrol on a basic public administration course [2].

According to our sources, there has not been any training on anti-corruption or transparency. Although some training is organized in Egypt on anti-corruption in other ministries, there are none at the MoD (1), (2), (3), (4).

This sub-indicator has been marked Not Applicable because the country has no regular anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel.

This sub-indicator has been marked Not Applicable because the country has no regular anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel.

There are some courses that cover corruption, but the training is not carried out systematically and not specifically on corruption. [1] The course for Masters students at the Estonian National Defence College focuses on ethics and ethical acts, as well as basic values in a democratic society. The courses for public servants cover the anti-corruption law. And finally, the courses funded by the European Social Fund, focus on ethics, corruption, the law and conflicts of interest. According to an interviewee, servicemen have taken part in those training programmes. [2] The Ministry of Defence is reported to be making an effort to create a clearer organisational culture and a more value-based approach. [3,4]

Anti-corruption training is not regular. It is either organised for public servants by the government to introduce a new Anti-Corruption Law or funded by the European Social Fund to teach ethics to leaders in the public sector. [1] The public sector ethics courses are held four to six times a year; the leader’s ethics courses are held twice a year. [2] Any public servant can attend the courses. Among others, the defence personnel sometimes attends the courses, but not regularly. [3] In the Estonian National Defence College a course on professional ethics is given to Masters students only. [4]

There is no regular systematic training on corruption in the defence sector addressing military and civil personnel, except for courses for Masters students. [1] The rest of the courses are irregular and any public servant can take part in them. Sometimes the personnel in the defence sector joins training sessions (meant for public servants) that include corruption-related issues. It often happens that public servants join the course when they have had a mishap in the code of conduct and are sent for training to review their knowledge on ethics, as based on the interview with an independent public ethics and corruption expert. [2]
The attendance of these courses by the defence sector personnel is not remarkable, very few attend. For public officials, there is training on conflicts of interest, ethics and inclusion, but not on corruption specifically. [3]

There is no publicly available information on training that is specifically focused on anti-corruption taking place. However, according to a written response provided by the Headquarters of the Defence Forces, education for good governance was organised for the entire staff of the Defence Forces (including both soldiers and civilians) in 2019 on behalf of the chief of general staff and prepared by the legal section of the Headquarters of the Defence Forces [1]. In addition, the aim is to educate systematically new personnel that comprise part of the leadership. Moreover, basic and further training of different personnel groups include educational themes that relate to good governance and criminal law. [1] There are also ethics courses available for all government employees on the joint online training website. These courses, however, are limited in their content and not mandatory to all employees. [2]

There is not enough information to score this indicator, as no there is no publicly available data on training that is specifically focused on anti-corruption taking place and its regularity.

On behalf of the chief of general staff and prepared by the legal section of the Headquarters of the Defence Forces, education for good governance was organised for the entire staff of the Defence Forces (including both soldiers and civilians) in 2019 according to a written response provided by the Headquarters of the Defence Forces. In addition, the aim was to educate systematically new personnel that comprise part of the leadership. Moreover, basic and further training of different personnel groups include educational themes that relate to good governance and criminal law. [1]

There are also ethics courses available for all government employees on the joint online training website. These courses, however, are limited in their content and not mandatory to all employees. [2] Beyond this, there is no publicly available information on this issue.

There is not enough information to score this indicator, as no there is no publicly available data on training that is specifically focused on anti-corruption taking place.

On behalf of the chief of general staff and prepared by the legal section of the Headquarters of the Defence Forces, education for good governance was organised for the entire staff of the Defence Forces (including both soldiers and civilians) in 2019 according to a written response provided by the Headquarters of the Defence Forces. In addition, the aim is to educate systematically new personnel that comprise part of the leadership. Moreover, basic and further training of different personnel groups include educational themes that relate to good governance and criminal law. [1] Training on ethical issues is incorporated holistically in military training, starting from the lessons given in conscript training. [2]

According to the General Comptroller of the Armies and “general rapporteur” of the Military Ethics Committee, [1] anti-corruption training does exist for sensitive positions within the Ministry of the Armed Forces (MOAF).
At the decision-making level, before taking up their duties, interventions are provided several times a year by the ministerial referent in the graduate courses of the Defence Management Training Center (CFMD) for senior central administration officials and heads of establishments. It also delivers training to the army commissioners. The Ministry’s “purchasing” mission also intervenes in the curriculum of confirmed managers by providing them with a “criminal risk and legal protection of public decision-makers” training.
All the buyers benefit from training, at the time of the recruitment of the agent and throughout their professional training and career, with a two-day training course “the public buyer facing the penal risk”. The teaching delivered is adapted to their sector of activity and context of intervention (armament, infrastructure, international purchase…). There is some evidence that the ethics “referent” provides training to decision-makers and those in buyer positions, [2] but further information on the content of the training is not publicly available.
However, at interview, an anonymous civilian executive of the MOAF revealed that no corruption training is provided at all to personnel not holding a decision-maker or buyer position. [3] That seemed to be confirmed by the “general rapporteur” of the Military Ethics Committee, stating that for Defence Ministry personnel in general, “e-learning training is available, either to be pursued internally or externally”, as well as “awareness leaflets on corruption risks or whistleblower protection” to be found on the internal website of the MOAF. The interviewee didn’t mention a compulsory nature of this training. This may have changed with the launch of the new Code of Conduct launched in December 2020, but it is too early to take this into account.

The Law of April 20, 2016 on the ethics, rights and obligations of civil servants states that “the public servant carries out his duties with dignity, impartiality, integrity and probity; is bound by an obligation of neutrality in the performance of his duties”. [1]
This law explicitly addresses conflicts of interests. It reinforces the mandate of the Ethics Committee, [2] with extended powers to prevent conflicts of interests, revolving doors with the private sector, influence peddling, and the holding of multiple posts at the same time. The Ethics Committee investigates the integrity of departures of civil servants to the private sector. [3]

Though all Ministry of the Armed Forces (MOAF) civilian personnel do not have the status of civil servants, articles 14 and 15 of the 2016 law [4] align contractual employees with the obligations of civil servants with regards to ethics rules.
In addition, as citizens, they are compelled to abide by Law Sapin 2 on transparency, anti-corruption and modernisation of public life, which has a wide array of anti-corruption provisions.

The 2016 Sapin 2 law also created the French Anti-corruption Agency (AFA). [5]
As of January 2020, the AFA is investigating every Ministry to establish a diagnostic of their current state of compliance and that of their operators and sub-contractors. [6]

The MOAF anticipated this investigation, [7] and is currently doing a “corruption-risk mapping” (with a broader definition of corruption than found in the Penal Code, encompassing embezzlement and misappropriation of funds), in the form of two separate questionnaires: one sent to over 60 departments at risk of corruption-exposure (procurement, subcontracting, exports, subsidies, HR, etc.) see [8] [8bis] within the Ministry, and a second one, anonymous, sent to operators working with the Ministry. The “contrôleur général des armées” and “ethics chief” of the MOAF, Jean Tenneroni, announces that this risks-mapping will be done and will result in an anti-corruption Code of Conduct before the end of 2020. [7]

Finally, a decree on the management of financial instruments held by certain personnel (audit agents for instance) of December 3, 2019, finalised the implementation of prevention and ethical control tools for the Ministry covering the most exposed positions of responsibility. While “declarations of interest” aim to prevent any conflict of interest for the agent and “declarations of assets” prevent the risk of undue enrichment during the term of a mandate or function, this decree supplements the existing one for certain civilians (Secretary General for the Administration, General Delegate for Armaments) and certain soldiers (Chief of the Defence staff and government commissioners in armaments companies). It is a question of avoiding any “insider trading” by entrusting the public agent’s portfolio to a manager so that he cannot interfere in the purchases or sales of his securities. [7] [9] This decree is currently awaiting the Minister’s signature. [9]

A charter of procurement already exists within the ministry. [10]

However, at the time of the assessment, no clear and specific guidance on how to proceed in the face of events of corruption was being provided to civilian personnel.

At the decision-making level, before taking up their duties, interventions are provided several times a year by the ministerial referent in the graduate courses of the Defence Management Training Center (CFMD) for senior central administration officials and heads of establishments. It also delivers training to the army commissioners. The ministry’s “purchasing” mission also intervenes in the curriculum of confirmed managers by providing them with a “criminal risk and legal protection of public decision-makers” training.
All the buyers benefit from training, at the time of the recruitment of the agent and throughout their professional training and career with a two-day training course “the public buyer facing the penal risk”. [1]

For general staff of the MOAF, however, no proper training seems to exist on corruption risks: an interview with an anonymous civilian executive of the ministry of Defence revealed that no corruption training is provided at all to personnel not holding a decision-maker or buyer position. [2]
That seemed to be confirmed by the “general rapporteur” of the Military Ethics Committee, stating that for MOAF personnel in general, “e-learning training is available, either to be pursued internally or externally”, as well as “awareness leaflets on corruption risks or whistleblower protection” to be found on the internal website of the MOAF. The interviewee didn’t mention a compulsory nature for this training.

According to the BMI report ‘Korruptionsprävention in der Bundesverwaltung’ (‘Corruption Prevention in the Federal Administration’), there are specialised training units within the Armed Forces that offer anti-corruption training, especially for personnel in charge of corruption prevention [1]. According to the BMVg’s sustainability report, corruption prevention features as part of the regular training of the Armed Forces, with an increased focus during qualification training for senior staff [2].

According to Central Service Regulation A-2100/1 on the implementation of the ‘Federal Government Directive Concerning the Prevention of Corruption in the Federal Administration’ [3], corruption training features as part of specialist and career training for both contract staff and public officials. There is also an e-learning programme that provides content on the issue of corruption prevention [3].

As part of the newly established Compliance Management System for the Ministry of Defence, training is conducted on the understanding and application of compliance. This training is offered to civilian and military staff with leadership responsibilities (i.e. heads of division, heads of directorates, heads of departments, state secretaries). From this year onwards, similar training will also be provided to other staff within the Ministry [3,4].

Although anti-corruption training is provided regularly and to all staff, there is little information available regarding the content and comprehensiveness of this training. Since more in-depth training on various corruption issues seems to be provided for specific high-risk positions, the regular training might be of a general nature.

The risks and consequences of corruption are covered as part of the regular induction training (‘Erstbelehrung’). The ‘Federal Government Directive Concerning the Prevention of Corruption in the Federal Administration’ stipulates that ’employees are to be made aware of the dangers of corruption when they swear an oath of service or undertake a commitment and are to be instructed about the consequences of corrupt behaviour. This instruction must be documented’ [1]. Awareness-raising activities on corruption therefore appear to be mandatory for all staff as part of their induction [2].

Information material on anti-corruption issues is circulated once per year for the purpose of further and renewed awareness-raising. In addition to anti-corruption training as part of the regular staff training, specialised seminars on the issue are offered by the Armed Forces Training Center (‘Bildungszentrum der Bundeswehr’) as well as the Public Administration Academy (‘Bundesakademie für Öffentliche Verwaltung’). The contact persons for corruption issues are subject to mandatory, specialised training. Those working in high-risk positions are to be familiarised with the specific risks of their position. This includes familiarisation with specific corruption risks identified for their position, their authority for decision-making and its limits, knowledge about the checks and prevention mechanisms in place and guidance on how to respond in the event that irregularities are suspected/identified [3] The guidelines for senior staff (‘Leitfaden für Vorgesetzte’), which is an annex to the ‘Federal Government Directive Concerning the Prevention of Corruption in the Federal Administration’, serves as a basis for this training [4].

Corruption training features as part of the induction training and the regular staff training. It applies to military and civilian personnel as well as contract staff and public officials (see 48B). Senior staff with management responsibilities are at the focus of these training activities [1].

Despite a public commitment in fighting corruption and building integrity among military personnel, the MOD doesn’t hold any anti-corruption training for its members or for its civil servants (according to the publicly available information, such as GAF and MOD websites and Ghanaian newspapers such as Modern Ghana, Myjoyonline, GhanaWeb, Ghana News Agency, Graphic Online).

The Ghana Armed Forces Command and Staff College (GAFCSC), which is the GAF’s training institution, doesn’t include anti-corruption courses in its military programmes (both for senior and junior level) (1). However, individual military personnel might take part in the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Centre’s courses which include anti-corruption training (i.e. Conflict Prevention Course, Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism Course) (2).

On the contrary, the Police service is taking part in the EU-Ghana Anti-Corruption, Rule of Law and Accountability Programme (ARAP) for 2016-2021 (3).

As there is no anti-corruption training, this indicator is marked Not Applicable.

As there is no anti-corruption training, this indicator is marked Not Applicable.

Anti-corruption training is superficial in nature and does not address more than values or standards [1]. It has been provided occasionally by NGOs such as Transparency International [2]. No other training is known to have been provided.

Anti-corruption training is done completely ad hoc, and may only be provided by external parties, such as NGOs [1, 2].

Relevant training programmes take place in Public Training Institute (INEP), on volunteer involvement. [1]

There is no anti-corruption element in the training of military or civilian personnel. No training takes places before deployment on missions [1]. However, on a voluntarily, anti-corruption and integrity training exists for Ministry of Defence (MoD) personnel, it is provided by the National University of Public Service.

Due to the lack of any anti-corruption training, this indicator is not applicable [1].

Due to the lack of any anti-corruption training, this indicator is not applicable [1].

Some level of anti-corruption training takes place for all military and civilian personnel. As per the directives of the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC), training takes place during annual Vigilance Week [1][2]. The 2017 theme was ‘My Vision – Corruption Free India’ and activities included Integrity Pledge, workshops and lectures [3]. The 2018 theme was ‘Eradicate Corruption-Build a New India’ [4].

As stated in the Ministry of Defence (MoD) 2018-19 report in Chapter 16:

“16.4 In keeping with the need to ensure transparency, fair play, accountability and integrity, efforts are being made continuously in the Ministry of Defence for sensitization of all the stakeholders against corrupt practices.

16.5 The Chief Vigilance Officer (CVO) maintains liaison with all concerned offices to ensure timely completion of various reports/ cases/ tasks relating to vigilance work.” [5]

Anti-corruption training seems to mainly focuses on organisational values, standards and identification/reporting of corruption.

As stated earlier, there is evidence of annual anti-corruption training as part of CVC directives and Vigilance Awareness Week [1][2]. The MoD has publicly committed to continually sensitise all stakeholders against corrupt practices. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) between 2018-2019 conducted 39 sessions to sensitise HAL employees on vigilance related topics for preventing corruption. There is evidence of professional anti-corruption training in DSPUs separate from that which is conducted during Vigilance Awareness Weeks. The Zonal Directors from the Department of Defence Production held a workshop on preventative vigilance in December 2018. Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) is conducting orientation programmes, presentations and lectures to newly inducted executives, supervisors, Ministerial staff and Central Industry Security Force (CISF) [3].

There is evidence found in MoD Annual Reports of implementation of preventative vigilance measures such as surprise checks, continuous analysis of data and system improvements thus indicating that there must be regular anti-corruption training of personnel in order to carry out such directives [4]. Given that there is an MoD Vigilance Division and corruption cases are being pursued, it is likely that further training is given to military and civilian personnel, that which is not documented [5].

From what minimal information can be found, there is evidence of anti-corruption training covering all MoD departments, organisations and units such as the Navy, Air Force, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Director General Border Roads (DGBR) and Directorate General Defence Estates (DGDE) [1][2][3].

Anti-corruption training activities within the TNI are still focused on training Indonesian National Army Military Police Investigators (POM TNI), as the law enforcement in TNI organisations, to handle corruption. In 2018, the Commission of Corruption Eradication delivered training to 150 law enforcers, including 50 personnel from TNI POM Investigators [1]. Some of the material presented included the potential for and vulnerability to criminal acts of corruption in several sectors, money laundering and the strategy of law enforcement officials to face pretrial [2]. Meanwhile, internal training for TNI personnel is carried out within the framework of spreading and evaluating Bureaucracy Reform, which highlights the need to establish integrity zones and clean up bureaucratic areas [3,4,5,6].

Anti-corruption messages communicated to TNI personnel are still limited to the form of awareness and education events, whose material revolves around anti-corruption values, standards and rules [1,2,3,4,5]. These events are held once a year. Based on the 2015-2019 TNI Bureaucracy Reform Roadmap, personnel supervision is more focused on improving performance, adherence to regulations (not specifically anti-corruption regulations) and increasing compliance and effectiveness in managing state finances within the TNI [6]. Meanwhile, considerations of career patterns and job promotions prioritise sequential positions and ranks (elevator system), in accordance with education and expertise [7].

Anti-corruption training activities are still focused on training and debriefing auditor personnel (APIP) in the Inspectorate General of the TNI [1,2] and delivering law enforcement training to TNI POM Investigators [3]. This anti-corruption training is therefore still focused on law enforcement training rather than preventive measures.

No evidence of anti-corruption training was found. The following sources were consulted [1, 2, 3, 4].

This indicator is marked Not Applicable, as no evidence of anti-corruption training was found [1,2 ,3, 4].

This indicator is marked Not Applicable, as no evidence of anti-corruption training was found [1,2 ,3, 4].

As part of its UNCAC commitments and commitments to foreign donors, various training programmes are held routinely, geared largely towards military performance rather than anti-corruption and cronyism within Iraq’s military establishment. Canadian prime minister reiterated his support for the NATO training mission in Iraq, without any mention of mandatory anti-corruption training (1), (2). Anti-corruption themed workshops and lectures hosted in collaboration between Iraq’s Integrity Commission and the anti-corruption academy offer training that appears to be limited to anti-graft body employees and inspector generals (3). Military personnel remain largely absent from these initiatives, despite rampant defence corruption. This indicates, as one researcher noted during an interview (4), the absence of any military-guided or inspired anti-corruption strategy, despite the fact that military institutions are heavily saturated by incompetent officers, finding protection behind the PMF’s ‘Muqaddas’ (holy) status which implies an ‘incorruptibility’ of men the took up arms in response to Sistani’s edict (5). Nepotism also remains a widely shared concern (6), which despite Abadi’s dubbing of 2018, as the year of rebuilding Iraq’s security forces, defence corruption risks have not been addressed through anti-corruption training. A score of zero has been applied in fair consideration of the above sources.

The lack of training schemes and poor capacity building are tall obstacles, which can discourage anti-corruption training. In absence of a common vision that informs and educates all fighters on the professional stature expected from security forces, some security strands may resist or fail to comply with training, if and when introduced. Similar difficulties have similar undermined efforts to modernise and professionalise post-2003 military structures. One such body is the CTS, despite relative success in training forces, these were outlived by ‘lack of manpower, competition for funding, limited cooperation with other armed forces and a perceived sectarian bias’ (7). Similar problems persist in Iraq today.

Given that there is no anti-corruption training for defence personnel, this has been marked not applicable.

Given that there is no anti-corruption training for defence personnel, this has been marked not applicable.

There is little publicly available information on IDF training as it is internal and not routinely subject to publication. However, thereis som evidence of anti-corruption training which addresses organisational values and standards, and identification and reporting of corruption (1). There is also evidence of some guidance being provided on conflicts of interest (2).

Anti-corruption training is delivered once at induction and upon entry into high risk positions and environments (1) (2).

Based on available evidence, the coverage of anti-corruption training appears fairly sporadic and does not form a key part of training programmes (1) (2). In general, the personel is informed about the Code of Ethics (3) as well as the IDF Spirit (4).

According to the 2019 annual report of the anti-corruption supervisor (section 5), training on anti-corruption issues has been delivered during the year of observation of the report. As it is reported, training occurred according to the modalities foreseen in art.15 of the Code of Conduct [1]. In addition to that, training was carried out both by in-house courses [2] and courses from the National School of Administration (Scuola Nazionale dell’Amministrazione, SNA). The latter proposes a series of courses dealing with different aspects of corruption [3] and organises also training sessions dedicated to the Ministry of Defence [4]. In house training is done by the office for specialised training and teaching (Ufficio per la Formazione Specialistica e Didattica) and some of them relates to anticorruption issues. They are repeated annually. Although, there are some modules in the courses by the National School of Administration as wells as by the Ministry of Defence on the issues of organisational values and standards, risk management and identification and reporting of corruption, from open-source researches was not possible to determine more precisely the content of the courses.

According to three-year anticorruption plan [1] and to the Code of Conduct [2], anticorruption measures and related proceedings are made available to all personnel of the administration that receive comprehensive and capillary information on the topic, at induction and regardless of rank. Specific and additional mandatory training for high level and high risk positions are provided annually and upon entry. Further, the anticorruption supervisor, by the 31 January of each year, has to take appropriate measures to ensure the training of the aforementioned personnel. [3]

The information from the Anticorruption supervisor report that the total number of trained personnel of the Ministry amounts to “more than 1.000” [1] underlines that there is room for improvement. Moreover, according to the Three-year Anticorruption Plan (section III.6.11), there is a distinction to be made between training of personnel working in high risk positions and other personnel. The former receives specialised training sessions, the latter received comprehensive and detailed information [2].

From information publicly available, it is possible to see that there are specific courses dedicated to managers, officials, and officers of area II and III [3].

According to a retired higher Maritime Self-Defence Force (MSDF) officer, who has commanded a regional MSDF district command, a number of issues related to compliance, listed in the Compliance Guidance [1] are addressed in training. Of these, the topics preventing collusive bidding, the ethics of the SDF personnel, and whistleblowing are most directly related to anti-corruption. [2] Anti-corruption was one of the issues addressed in the SDF ethics week organised in December in 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019, for both civilian Ministry of Defence (MOD) employees and SDF officials (see Q34A). [3] Pamphlets used for this project address anti-corruption as one of several ethics issues, and stress organisational values and standards, and identification and reporting of corruption. [4]

A retired higher MSDF officer, who has commanded a regional MSDF district command, stated that, “It cannot be said in general, but training and education follows an annual plan. Compliance training for all personnel takes place at an approximately weekly or monthly frequency, and specialist training about contracts and procurement is conducted at a frequency determined by regulations.” [1] Over several years, the SDF has had a focus week in December, during which personnel are given instructions on ethics issues, including anti-corruption (see Q34A). Pamphlets, instructions and other sources are found on the website of the Ministry of Defence. [2] Various categories of administrative officials in the MOD are given anti-corruption training. Such training is particularly emphasised for newly employed administrative officials. [3]

According to a retired higher SDF officer, the Inspector General’s Office (IGO)’s Compliance Guidance has information about which items all personnel should receive training in and which categories personnel with specialised jobs should receive training in. [1] This Guidance clearly states that all staff should receive information on whistleblowing and ethics and staff working with procurement should receive training in preventing collusive bidding. Information on ethics includes information on anti-corruption. [2] Anti-corruption training is given to administrative officials in the MOD as well, with an emphasis on educating newly employed officials. [3]

There are several anti-corruption training sessions that take place in Jordan, including a few within the armed forces. Some of these training sessions are organised by the Integrity and Anti-Corruption Commission, and there is some media reporting around them, but that does not extend to defence [1, 2]. The majority of this training took place at the Ministry of Education and the Judicial Council or were organised by foreign embassies [3]. In November 2018, the Integrity and Anti-Corruption Commission published in its news section that a delegate from the general security department visited the Anti-Corruption Commission to understand its work within the framework of anti-corruption training [4]. This piece of news indicates that collaboration between the commission and the general security department is recent and that a training engagement has not been in place before. According to an officer within the armed forces, in the last year, members of the armed forces participated in anti-corruption training. These training sessions were not only for the armed forces, but normally one or two officers participate [5].

Anti-corruption training within the armed forces is conducted as ad-hoc sessions for individuals when the armed forces receive an invitation from an NGO or JIACC [1,2].

In the Jordanian armed forces, there is a unit called ” Moral and Political Guidance” which provide sporadic training which includes ad-hoc mentions of corruption and misuse of power [1,2].

There is limited evidence of any specific anti-corruption training that military and civilian personnel of the Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) receive. Past incidences of corruption especially in instances where officers in the KDF have, in the past, been implicated in corruption for example: smuggling rackets during their operations in Somalia, [1] or questionable deals involving Ministry of Defence (MOD) civilian personnel acqusition of land by (KDF) for the establishment of Forward Operating base in Narok County all indicate gaps that need comprehensive training before deployment. [2]

Nevertheless, there is anecdotal evidence that indicates that at times KDF has organised training on values and ethics mainly targeting MOD leadership personnel. [3] However, the extent to which this includes issues on corruption remains unclear. Moreover, there are indications from the National Defence College’s (NDC) National Policy Papers Yearbook Series that participants do study issues related to corruption. [4]

The yearbook series collects research done by the participants during their one year course at the College. The NDC is KDF’s sponsored institution charged with the responsibility of developing and improving the intellectual capacity of senior military and government officials.

There is limited evidence of regular anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel available. There is some evidence of ad hoc past workshops like on finance management within KDF have integrated aspects of sensitization on corruption with the curb corrupion. [1] Nevertheless, despite provisions of the Kenya Defence Forces Act indicating that the Defence Forces shall prevent corruption and promote transparency and accountability in section 3. [2] Given that it appears anti-corruption training does not take place for military and civilian defence personnel, this indicator is marked ‘Not Applicable’.

There is no evidence to suggest coverage of personnel within the military on anti-corruption training. As such, this indicator is marked ‘Not Applicable’.

There is not enough evidence to score this indicator. According to policy documents of the Ministry of Defence, from 2016 to 2018 a large number of personnel benefited from training and organised information campaigns on corruption risks [1]. However, this is challenging to measure given that the statement is generic and does not specifically indicate the type of anti-corruption trainings that were organised over this period

There is not enough evidence to score this indicator. Apart from stating that the anti-corruption trainings are ongoing [1], no other information regarding the regularity and frequency of these types of trainings are given in the Integrity Plan for 2019-2022 or other documents from the Ministry of Defence.

According to the Ministry of Defence, anti-corruption trainings are being attended by Kosovo Security Force members – both civilian and military – across each rank bracket [1]

The training that the security agencies receive from external auditors from SAB, ACA or the Finance Ministry tends to brief and attendance is not obligatory, auditors said (1, 2 and 3). The trainings focus on the governmental values of Kuwait, there is discussion on how to spot corrupt practices and how personnel should report them to state auditors or their supervisors. Training sessions do sometimes often discuss international best practices.The personnel in attendance are usually not paying any attention. Auditors who run the training complain frequently that attendees are either on their phone, talking to each other or looking sleepy. Local news media does not follow these workshops because no one takes them seriously.

Anti-corruption courses and workshops take place at least once a month from the ACA, but are not given necessarily at induction or upon entry to a high risk area, auditors said (1, 2 and 3). It is not woven into promotion courses at all levels.

Training is delivered to high ranking military and civilian personnel, the aforementioned sources said (1, 2 and 3).

According to the recommendation of the report of the NATO Member States Expert Group, from the 2015 cadets of the National Defense Academy of Latvia, the course “Military Law” includes training on prevention of corruption and conflict of interest. [1] Officials also learn how to identify the risks of corruption by taking part in courses organized by the Public Administration School on questions of identification and prevention of corruption risks. [2] An internal intranet link has been created on the Corruption Prevention and Combating Bureau homepage (https://www.knab.gov.lv/en/education/training/) on the internal Ministry of Defence network. The Ministry of Defence also provides training for new employees, informing them what a conflict of interest is and the risks of corruption. All employees have the opportunity to get acquainted with the intranet information on ethical principles, rights of employees, duties, responsibility and ethical conduct standards, as well as issues related to conflict prevention, assessment of corruption risks, forms of corruption and mitigating corruption available on the internal intranet of the Ministry of Defence.

Gaining knowledge of anti-corruption issues for soldiers is an opportunity to take part in courses organised by the School of Public Administration on questions of identification and prevention of corruption risks. Acquiring this knowledge is an integral part of planning and training. [1]

The trainings are not held regularly for military personnel as particpation is voluntary only. For civilian personnel, training is offered in a following way: 1) for civilians who join the public service in the MOD the training is compulsory; 2) for category of civil servants who are identified as exposed to corruption risks are trained once in two years; 3) others join courses on voluntary basis.

Training is available to all interested personnel, however, the anti-corruption training is not mandatory. [1]
According to the government reviewer, all new staff receives mandatory anticorruption and conflict of interest training presented by the director of the Audit and Inspection Department. Information could not be independently verified.

The LAF does not have specific anti-corruption training continuously conducted for the officers (1). In March 2018, the Directorate for International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights conducted training for anti-corruption; however, the content of it is not publicized (2). It is unclear whether the training included the organisational values and standards, the impact of the organisation, military effectiveness; identification and reporting of corruption, and risk management (2). However, it is important to note that the LAF has taken part in international military education programs with partner nations. The programs, such as the US’s IMET, are tied to best practices in financial management, procurement, and acquisition all emphasize anti-corruption best practices (3). Further, LAF personnel undergo several other training abroad on anticorruption, for example, Legal Aspects of Combating Corruption and Budget Preparation, Execution and Accountability (USA), Governance and Financial Management (Australia), as well as internal training in collaboration with LTA and Institut des Finances Basil Fuleihan with whom LAF signed a cooperation agreement (4). LAF also conducts internal workshops regarding international humanitarian law, anticorruption and code of conduct periodically.

Anti-corruption training is conducted in an ad-hoc manner (1) and by external parties (2). For example, the LAF (1) and the LTA (2) conducted anti-corruption workshops for military personnel. According to the LAF’s Directorate of Orientation, the LAF operates under the general framework of the laws and rules of the military that personnel that are continuously reminded of (3).

Since 2013, the LAF has cooperated with Basel Fleihan institute to conduct training for its officers at the Fouad Chehab Academy for Command and General StaffFor instance, the institute implemented a program to manage public financing and trained a group of 23 adminstrative officers at the Acadmy. (1) Also, trainings are integrated as a small portion of other compliance training modules under the IMET (2)

The National Security System (NSS) personnel policy concept stipulates that personnel qualifications have to be improved regularly by organising formal and non-formal trainings (such as internal and external courses, seminars, conferences, internships, etc.) [1]. Moreover, the NSS corruption prevention program stipulates that NSS institutions should focus on personnel trainings on topics related to anti-corruption and corruption prevention [2]. There is evidence that such trainings do take place. For instance, in 2018 the Ministry of Defence organised a seminar on the topic “How to determine main anti-corruption purposes and how to measure success”. The training was carried out by Transparency International Lithuania and covered the following topics: identifying and reporting corruption, risk management, organisational values and standards, etc. [3]. According to information based on Freedom of Information requests, the annual trainings plan is confirmed by the Minister of Defence. For instance, in 2017, two trainings related to corruption were organised and three trainings were planned for 2018 [4]. These trainings, however, are not comprehensive or regular.

According to the government reviewer, anti-corruption training is organized every year, however each year on different topic and for different audience [5].

According to information based on a Freedom of Information request, an annual training plan is confirmed by the Minister of Defence. For instance, in 2017, two trainings related to corruption were organised and three trainings were planned for 2018 (1). The trainings however are not comprehensive or regular.

According to information based on a Freedom of Information request, personnel trainings are organised for high-ranking staff and selected personnel from various defence institutions. However, it is not clear who exactly participates in such trainings [1,2].

The Armed Forces Integrity Plan is a comprehensive plan that stresses organisational values and standards, the impact of the military, identification and reporting of corruption as well as risk management. [1] The military also conducts anti-corruption training with the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC), although the module used for training with the MACC is not available through public sources. There are also other integrity-building seminars and training sessions, such as Kursus Bina Insan (Humanity Building Course), Program Pengukuhan Integriti Perkhidmatan Awam (PIPA) (Public Services Integrity Building Programme), and Penerapan Nilai Islam (Islamic Values Application). Integrity, honesty, and trustworthiness are Islamic values which personnel are instilled with through the Islamic Value Application programme. However, the exact modules of these programmes are also unavailable through public sources, therefore the content of such programmes cannot be evaluated. Personnel also swear the graft-free oath every year. [2] [3] [4] [5]

Although anti-corruption and integrity building programmes were reduced in 2018 compared to 2017 due to budget constraints, training continues to take place regularly for personnel. Seventeen series of anti-corruption training as discussed above were held in 2018 as opposed to 23 series held in 2017. [1] Anti-corruption training is typically provided upon induction and entry into high-risk positions and environments. Personnel from all levels in the military also receives training through the various programmes as mentioned above. [2][3][4][5]

There is anti-corruption training for all levels of personnel through the various anti-corruption and integrity building programmes as mentioned above. [1] [2] [3] [4]

1. Ethics in Peacekeeping (Williamsburg: Peace Operations Training Institute, 2005) http://cdn.peaceopstraining.org/course_promos/ethics/ethics_english.pdf
2. Recommandations visant à renforcer le programme anti-corruption (Mali), Réforme du secteur public et renforcement des capacités région Afrique [Recommendations aiming to reinforce the anticorruption programme (Mali), Reform of the public sector and reinforcement of the Africa regional capacities] (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2008) http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/anticorrupt/MaliwebAnti.pdf
3. Mali unmasked: resistance, collusion, collaboration (Oslo: NOREF, 2013), available at https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/162494/aa8b1177c49658bb15a2a1da1d320ffd.pdf
4. “Calendrier de formation”, Ecole de Maintien de la Paix Alioune Blondin Beye, www.empbamako.org/index.php/Contenu-du-site/2015-02-17-14-53-02.html
5. Moussa Mamadou Bagayoko, “Les débâcles fréquentes de l’armée : – La corruption au sein de l’armée : la gangrène – La hiérarchie militaire doit être revue et corrigée” [The frequent debacles of the army: corrupton at the heart of the army: the gangrene – the military hierarchy must be rethought and corrected], Niarela, 2017, https://niarela.net/societe/les-debacles-frequentes-de-larmee-la-corruption-au-sein-de-larmee-la-gangrene-la-hierarchie-militaire-doit-etre-revue-et-corrigee
6. Rémy Hémez, “2012 : l’étrange défaite de l’armée malienne” [2012: the strange defeat of the Malian army], Ultima Ratio, January 18, 2017, http://ultimaratio-blog.org/archives/8272
7. Mali: Security, Dialogue and Meaningful Reform (Brussels: International Crisis Group, 2013) https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/west-africa/mali/mali-security-dialogue-and-meaningful-reform
8. Henri de Raincourt & Hélène Conway-Mouret, Rapport d’Information fait au nom de la commission des affaires étrangères, de la défense et des forces armées sur l’aide publique au développement au Sahel [Information report in the name of the foreign affairs, defence and armed forces committee on public development aid in the Sahel] (Paris: Sénat français, 2016) http://www.senat.fr/rap/r15-728/r15-728.html
9. La Politique de défense au Mali: Bilan et Perspectives [Defence policy in Mali: Summary and perspectives] (Bonn: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 2014), accessed December 2015, http://www.fes-westafrica.org/wp-content/gallery/2013/07/la-politique-de-defence-au-Mali-bilan-et-perspectives-par-Colonel-Major-Adama-DEMBELE.pdf
10. Susanna D. Wing, “Mali: The Politics of a Crisis”, in African Affairs Volume 112, Issue 448 (Oxford: OUP, 2013), 476–485.
11. Martin Van Vliet, “Weak Legislature, Failing MPs, and the Collapse of Democracy in Mali”, in African Affairs Volume 113, Issue 450 (Oxford: OUP, 2013), 45–66.
12. Hubert Ledoux, “Gouvernance et corruption ne vont pas de pair” [Governance and corruption do not go together], Maliactu, January 22, 2016, available at https://revuedepressecorens.wordpress.com/2016/02/02/gouvernance-et-corruption-ne-vont-pas-de-pair/
13. Karolina MacLachlan, Security assistance, corruption and fragile environments: Exploring the case of Mali 2001-2012 (London: Transparency International UK, 2015) https://ti-defence.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/150818-150817-Security-assistance-corruption-and-fragile-environments-Exploring-the-case-of-Mali-2001-2012.pdf
14. Interviewee 5: Security expert working in Bamako, interview with author, Bamako, June 11, 2018.

The assessor found no evidence to suggest that regular training on corruption issues takes place within the Malian army. But other security forces – the national guard, the police and the gendarmerie – are receiving regular, ongoing anticorruption training via the EU’s EUCAP Sahel mission.¹² Evidence from a number of sources indicates there has been widespread corruption in the Malian army for at least the last decade,⁵ ⁶ ⁷ ⁸ ⁹ ¹⁰ ¹¹ indicating that any training mechanisms that are in place are highly ineffective. According to a World Bank report, corruption is commonplace among defence personnel. Indeed, a placement in the army is seen as an asset which generates “flows of illicit income”.² A NOREF report notes that the Malian army lacks “a unified national moral compass to underwrite its military operations”.³
There are two Malian training schools for international missions. The first is the Military Administration School (EMA) in Koulikoro, which provides training for officers from African contingents who carry out administrative or financial duties. The Koulikoro School of Peacekeeping offers courses on human rights and international treaties, but a specific focus on corruption issues is not in place despite the risk corruption poses to security assistance programmes.¹³
The Alioune Blondin Beye school of peacekeeping in Bamako offers some anticorruption training as part of its standard UN peacekeeping modules. Their course on ethics includes teaching on the Code of Conduct, Trafficking and Discipline.¹ However, a specific focus on corruption is missing.¹³ While anticorruption is not explicitly referenced, it is included peripherally in these training courses; “integrity and not soliciting or accepting material reward, honour or gifts” are for example mentioned in training texts.¹ No evidence was found to indicate how much coverage these courses achieve.
The police, gendarmerie and national guard are receiving regular anticorruption training from the EU’s EUCAP Sahel Training Mission.¹² Reforms are designed to create a more effective and transparent human resources system. Training is designed to install a citizen’s ethic into the police to discourage them from preying on the population and demanding bribes.¹² However, a security expert in Bamako confirmed that the EU’s military training mission (EUTM) focuses overwhelmingly on military tactics and contains no anticorruption component.¹⁴ Indeed, the EUTM is operating in Mali at the request of the Malian government. Therefore, it does not have an executive or mentoring mandate. It can only deliver what the Malian authorities want.¹⁴ Transparency International’s (TI) analysis of the previous US-led and French-led training efforts in Mali deemed that these were insufficient:¹³ “US interviewees pointed out that the Defence Institute for International Legal Studies (DIILS) delivered courses on human rights and ethics to the Malian military. However, DIILS would usually focus on human rights and civil/military relations before all other issues, including corruption. While programming in some cases did involve anti-corruption courses, the usual focus was on human rights issues; this was the case in Mali as well”.
TI notes that IMET training incorporates human rights training but does not have an explicit focus on transparency, accountability and counter-corruption (TACC) issues. The report says that “most interviewees argued that standalone counter-corruption courses in the Malian armed forces would not have worked. What was needed was an integrated approach addressing other issues, including civil-military relations and good governance, and encompassing state and social entities apart from the army. Thus tackling corruption needed to be embedded in a comprehensive reform of institutions and processes, as robust institutional systems and better civilian oversight were important mechanisms for decreasing the risk of corruption”.¹³ TI determines that the French training courses similarly did not include a component on tackling corruption.¹³

The assessor found no evidence to suggest that regular training on corruption issues takes place within the Malian army. But other security forces – the national guard, the police and the gendarmerie – are receiving regular, ongoing anticorruption training via the EU’s EUCAP Sahel mission.²
There are two Malian training schools for international missions. The first is the Military Administration School (EMA) in Koulikoro, which provides training for officers from African contingents who carry out administrative or financial duties. The Koulikoro School of Peacekeeping offers courses on human rights and international treaties, but a specific focus on corruption issues is not in place despite the risk corruption poses to security assistance programmes.³
The Alioune Blondin Beye school of peacekeeping in Bamako offers some anticorruption training as part of its standard UN peacekeeping modules. Their course on ethics includes teaching on the Code of Conduct, Trafficking and Discipline.¹ However, a specific focus on corruption is missing.³ While anticorruption is not explicitly referenced, it is included peripherally in these training courses; “integrity and not soliciting or accepting material reward, honour or gifts” are for example mentioned in training texts.¹ No evidence was found to indicate how much coverage these courses achieve.
The police, gendarmerie and national guard are receiving regular anticorruption training from the EU’s EUCAP Sahel Training Mission.² Reforms are designed to create a more effective and transparent human resources system. Training is designed to install a citizen’s ethic into the police to discourage them from preying on the population and demanding bribes.² However, a security expert in Bamako confirmed that the EU’s military training mission (EUTM) focuses overwhelmingly on military tactics and contains no anticorruption component.⁴ Indeed, the EUTM is operating in Mali at the request of the Malian government. Therefore, it does not have an executive or mentoring mandate. It can only deliver what the Malian authorities want.⁴
From the evidence presented, it is unclear if training is targeted at high risk posts, or if it is integrated in any meaningful way.

The training provided by SEDENA and SEMAR in the fight against corruption mainly addresses values. When reviewing official information, institutional efforts are perceived, however, the link between corruption and its impact within these organizations is not clear, nor is the way to identify and report it clear. [1]

Some of the annual reports of the Ethics and Conflict of Interest Prevention Committees (CEPCI), in charge of this task, show isolated activities such as the distribution of leaflets and the placement of material in common areas, screen savers, conferences, evaluations, etc. [2] [3]

The 2019 Code of Conduct does mandate an annual training on its terms to military personnel only. However, this is a very new legal documents and we do not have any information on how and if this is being enforced. [1] Given the lack of substantial evidence, this indicator is not scored and is marked ‘Not Enough Information.’

From the official information available, it can be inferred that training in the subject is integrated as a part of other modules on compliance with regulations, and that as such it must be provided to all personnel, civil and military. [1] [2]

However, beyond the evaluations of CEPCI compliance by the ASF, [3] it is not possible to assess the real coverage of these trainings as there is no analysis by academics, civil society, or even by the press. [4] Given the lack of substantial evidence, this indicator is not scored and is marked ‘Not Enough Information.’

According to interviewees, no anti-corruption training takes place, [1][2] but when personnel is sent on foreign missions, they are trained by partner countries also in anti-corruption matters, especially when it comes to high risk missions. [!]

According to the MoD reviewer, however, the Human Resoures Management Authority in accordance with the General Program of Vocational Training and specialization organizes trainings for civil servants and state employees concerning integrity and corruption. In addition to trainings in a country, employees in MoD and AFMNE attended courses in framework of BI Programme of Education and Training abroad. Trainings of civil servants, state employees and professional military personnel are conducted regularly. Moreover, anti-corruption trainings are delivered to civil servants and state employees, civilians and military personnel from each branch of AF MNE. At the international level, the Ministry of Defence cooperates with numerous partners in the field of building and strengthening the integrity and fight against corruption (NATO, EU, CIDS, RACVIAC, RAI, TI, etc.). Regularly workshops, seminars and conferences are organized with these partners, and the MoD and Armed Forces staff are active participants in training and courses on the topics mentioned, which are foreseen in bilateral cooperation plans with partner countries. [3]

According to the MoD reviewer, anti-corruption training is delivered once a year, and upon entry into high risk positions and environments. [1] More recently, the Action Plan for implementation of the Integrity Plan in Ministry of Defence, as a risk reduction measure, is measure to conduct training of employees in the Ministry of Defence and Army of Montenegro on integrity and prevention of corruption, at least twice a year. [2]

Human Resoures Management Authority in accordance with the General Program of Vocational Training and specialization organizes trainings for civil servants and state employees concerning integrity and corruption as well. [3,4]

According to the MoD reviewer, anti-corruption training is delivered to higher rank brackets of military personnel and the equivalent for civilian personnel. [1] This information could not be verified.

The Action Plan for implementation of the Integrity Plan in Ministry of Defence, as a risk reduction measure, is measure to conduct training of employees in the Ministry of Defence and Army of Montenegro on integrity and prevention of corruption, at least twice a year. [2]

Human Resoures Management Authority in accordance with the General Program of Vocational Training and specialization organizes trainings for civil servants and state employees concerning integrity and corruption as well. [3,4,5]

Over the past years, a number of measures and initiatives have been taken by Moroccan authorities to fight corruption (1)(2)(3)(4)(5).
These include:
⁃ The creation of the ICPC (National Commission for the Fight against Corruption) and its transformation into the National Body for the Fight against Corruption in 2015/2017 (1).
⁃ The launch of a national anti-corruption strategy in 2016 (3)(6).
⁃ The development of an e-gov and e-data strategy with better transparency and access to government policies and administrative documents online, as well as consultations and better dialogue between the authorities and Moroccan citizens (6)(7).
⁃ The creation of an anti-corruption hotline and internet platform (8).

However, the activities of the ICPC and the cases of corruption brought to court concern mainly the police, the customs and local authorities. There is no mention of the military in these sources, and no evidence of an anti-corruption training that specifically targets the military was found in NGO reports or the press.

Since Morocco has no anti-corruption training, this sub-indicator is marked Not Applicable.

Since Morocco has no anti-corruption training, this sub-indicator is marked Not Applicable.

There is no anti-corruption training provided for military and civilian personnel in the Ministry of Defence [1,2,3].

Since no evidence was found in publicly available sources of any anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel (see 48A), this indicator is marked ‘Not Applicable’.

Since no evidence was found in publicly available sources of any anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel (see 48A), this indicator is marked ‘Not Applicable’.

According to the MoD, the preventative training programmes conducted by the COID cover a range of topics, including organisational integrity policy, regulations, the application of regulations, social issues, moral judgement, military ethics, integrity risk analysis and how to identify, report and manage corruption [1]. However, the level of comprehensiveness largely differs depending on where you work in the Ministry; for most employees, the focus is primarily on organisational values, social issues and integrity [2].

Preventative integrity training programmes are a primary part of the education/promotion courses given to military personnel when they apply for new roles and are thus seen as part of career education rather than a regular occurrence [1]. Training is not delivered annually; on average, there is some form of education/discussion to raise awareness about corruption every 2-3 years [2]. On an ad hoc basis, commanders may ask the COID for advice on a specific topic and the COID can give a workshop on the topic to a specific unit [1]. Commanding officers can also instigate an ‘Integrity Thermometer’, a 10-15 question survey given to all personnel in a unit to give the COID an impression of the culture and environment [1]. The COID can then conduct a training event to address any themes or issues raised. Commanders themselves, who are in a high-risk position, receive training upon appointment to that position [1].

Preventative integrity training programmes are conducted as part of pre-deployment training, where the focus is on adapting to the illicit economies that personnel may face abroad during a mission [1]. Emphasis is placed on general corruption risks, as well as situations that are not seen as traditional corruption risks, but still pose a significant threat. For example, personnel are encouraged to practise good social media hygiene and privacy as pictures or details of their loved ones or personal lives can be used by others to manipulate or coerce them [1].

In addition, anti-corruption training is conducted during induction, upon entry into high-risk positions and regularly for high-risk personnel [1].

According to the COID, anti-corruption training is conducted at all levels of the military and defence civil service [1]. However, the military personnel interviewed for this assessment had not received such training during their careers, indicating that the coverage of personnel for such training (and, in turn, the regularity of such training) is not as extensive as the COID states [2,3]. It is likely the case that personnel in high-level positions and/or in procurement positions receive training more frequently and with emphasis on different topics.

In 2018, the NZDF began a comprehensive programme, at the direction of the Vice Chief of Defence Force, to lift the maturity of the NZDF Fraud Control Framework. This programme is entitled Arai Tinihanga (‘to prevent fraud’) [1]. As part of this programme, a clear unambiguous framework to follow when responding to allegations of fraud or corruption was issued in 2019 (and updated for COVID-19) [2]. The aim of the NZDF Fraud Response protocol is to ensure that the perpetrators of fraud and corruption are identified, that internal response actions are lawful and in consultation with external agencies, that remedies are applied consistently and fairly, and that the recovery of lost money or other property is pursued wherever practicable. Fraud governance arrangements are also in the process of being strengthened. The Organisation Committee will oversee fraud and corruption control, supported by a new Counter-Fraud and Anti-Corruption Advisory Group. The OC will report to NZDF’s Executive Committee and be advised by the NZDF RAC and Board.

The Chief of Defence Force has issued a directive on the management of fraud, which outlines the processes in place for responding to suspected fraud and corruption. The directive discusses the applicability and purpose of the Defence Force Fraud Policy directive, and includes definitions of fraud, responsibilities of Chiefs of Service, Commanders, and senior executives, reporting suspected fraud, potential indicators of fraudulent activity and provides guidelines and access to a related on-line Tool kit, among other details. Fraud is seen within a broad lens so as to include factors outside of monetary misuse [3, 4]. Elements within the new NZDF Fraud and Corruption Control Plan tackle issues within the spectrum of organisational values, leadership, and culture, which are themselves represented within the NZDF core value of integrity. Matters relating to military effectiveness are present within the Control Plan (the NZDF does not usually use the term ‘Military Effectiveness’) such as poor management and poor decision-making – just two of the components essential to military effectiveness. Also included within the definition of fraud and corruption is the acknowledgement that these two vices represent a misuse of power and authority. Taken as a whole, these present a very clear message of the danger surrounding fraud and corruption and how these impact the organisation. The Second element of the Plan pertains to detection and includes emphasis reporting and the complaint process (among other details). Training must follow the direction set by the Plan in order to meet organisational outputs [5].

The MoD’s Fraud Control Framework stresses zero tolerance for fraud and corruption, and places emphasis on the Leadership Team to provide good governance. It also highlights the need for risk management, and how to prevent, detect, and respond to fraud. The Fraud Control Framework also links to other relevant policies of the ministry, including but not limited to procurement, delegations, budgeting and financial reporting, conflicts of interests, and secondary employment policies [5]. Recently a draft NZDF Fraud and Corruption Control Plan was initiated, and this provides definitions of the two, as well as the processes involved in preventing them appearing. The plan is informed by the Counter-Fraud and Anti-Corruption Advisory Group [6]. According to the ministry, it remains alert to issues of bribery and corruption and provides regular briefings to staff on these matters. In January 2020 a single employee in the Ministry of Defence passed a select amount of financial information to a single individual in a company the ministry engages with. Employment was terminated following an investigation [7].

In the NZDF, specific awareness training content is provided for in those areas related to financial management, accountability and procurement. However, specific anti-corruption training is not routinely included as part of the general civilian code of conduct training and induction training activity. Training specific to finance and procurement roles, and cost centre management also occurs prior to deployment on operations in addition to routine service/employment. The Directorate of Defence Security has a leading role in providing training resources and advice across the NZDF. The Directorate of Defence Security conducts refresher training on personal security issues including anti-corruption, document handling, restricted area access, and travel to restricted countries, though the frequency is unknown. The Ministry of Defence undertakes financial competency workshops which cover internal and fraud controls. According to the Ministry, regular emails and intranet posts promote awareness in respect of sensitive expenditure, gifts, hospitality and potential conflicts of interest – though the thoroughness of these has not been independently verified by the assessor. Individual performance is assessed against the State Service Commissioner’s Standards of Integrity and Conduct, and where appropriate, whether delegations and budgets have been managed in accordance within policies and procedures. Similar to the NZDF, the frequency of this training after induction or for special assignment remains unclear. [1, 2] However, the MoD notes that the Finance division and Governance team regularly run Internal Controls workshops which are open to all staff [3].

In the NZDF, specific anti-corruption training is not routinely included as part of the general civilian code of conduct training and guidance issued through welcome booklets and induction training activity. Sources interviewed corroborated this and were of the opinion that more junior personnel do not receive specific training. However, training is provided for senior officials or for those in finance and procurement roles, and cost centre management, and during pre-deployment phase [1, 2, 3]. While the Ministry of Defence undertakes financial competency workshops which cover internal and fraud controls, the coverage of personnel other than those in higher positions could not be verified [4].
Moreover, the MoD’s Finance division and Governance team regularly run Internal Controls workshops which are open to all staff. Any staff who are new to the Ministry and have not attended previously or those who would like a refresher are encouraged to attend.[5].

Even though no evidence has been found that there is an explicit programme directly addressing corruption as part of military and civilian personnel training, officers are trained in general ethics and in line with the Military Penal Code, which addresses corruption (Article 228) (1). Furthermore, high-level national authorities pay special attention to fighting corruption. Indeed, the security and defence policy of the Presidential Renaissance Programme for 2016-2021 includes fighting against corruption in the security and defence institutions as part of improving the overall security governance strategy (2). Therefore, the Niger government welcomes different initiatives coming from national and international institutions. Thus, through 2013-2014, HALCIA has been ensuring specific training to police and customs addressing corruption within their services (3). In September 2016 the Abdou Moumouni University of Niger, with the support of Belgium, inaugurated a Master’s Degree Programme entitled Security and Culture of Peace, which is explicitly aimed at Niger military and civil officers (4). It provides in-depth training on a vast range of security and defence issues. According to respondents, matters relating to corruption – such as drugs, arms, and people trafficking – are often discussed in class, even if it is not a defined topic.
The European Union also provides training to Nigerien civil and military servants. Launched in 2012, EUCAP Sahel-Niger provides advice and training to support the Nigerien authorities in strengthening their security capabilities. It contributes to the development of an “integrated, coherent, sustainable, and human rights-based approach among the various Nigerien security agencies in the fight against terrorism and organised [sic] crime” (5). The objective of EUCAP Sahel is “improving the efficiency of the regional mixed command posts to improve the response to crises and the interoperability of security forces; collecting and sharing intelligence between those forces; developing forensic science expertise; training the municipal police of the Agadez region; improving human resources management systems; improving teaching capacity at the security forces’ training centers [sic] and schools; and ensuring that the armed forces act on a sound legal basis in their mission to combat terrorism and trafficking” (5). According to interviewees, training provided by CAP Sahel does not explicitly include “corruption” as a specific course. However, in their classes, experts regularly discuss and actively debate issues of corruption as being directly related to the trafficking of drugs, arms or people (6).
As part of the cooperation between European Union and Germany (GIZ), Niger benefitted from the program to strengthen the capacity of the National Police working along the border with Nigeria, in Maradi, Zinder and Tahoua (November 2014-December 2015) (7).
As part of the bilateral cooperation with the USA, by signing the Joint Country Action Plan (JCAP) in October 2015, Niger engaged in the Security Governance Initiative. The objective of the programme is to contribute to improving decision-making processes that determine the allocation of human, material, and financial resources of the security sector as well as enhancing human resourcing procedures (8), which imply addressing corruption. France is engaged in the countries of the Sahel region (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger) through Operation Barkhane, and also participates in the regular training of Niger’s military personnel, which covers general ethics.
The International Committee of the Red Cross, which plays an important role in Niger, also regularly provides training for the Nigerien military on International Humanitarian Law, where issues of corruption are discussed as part of the training (9). Finally, since 2013, GIZ, through its RECAP project, has been providing support for police capacity building since 2013. Thanks to RECAP, GIZ has become a trusted partner of the IGSS and the DGPN, and more specifically of the ENP/FP, the DSP, DST and the Human Resources Department (HRD). GIZ/RECAP supports the Niger Police in the fields of training, border security and management, human resources management and, more recently, in the fight against corruption (10).

Given the multiple bilateral partners and organizations involved in this type of training (as well as the decentralized nature of the trainings), the scoring for this sub-indicator is tricky. It appears that the regularity of training depends largely on the perception by third parties of new emerging crises, as opposed to an internal procedure that is consistently implemented by Niger’s Ministry of the Interior or HALCIA. Therefore, the regularity is questionable. For example, as per source 2 (April 2016) on the EUCAP Sahel Niger Mission, the organizers have trained over 6,000 members of the Nigerien police forces, as well as members of the military and the judiciary. According to EUCAP, the focus now is on training trainers. The training also seems to focus on regions where there are flare-ups or security threats. “In July 2014 the mission objectives were adjusted in the light of the experience gained in the first two years. During the current mandate, EUCAP is increasing its assistance to Niger’s regions, in particular the Agadez region (establishment of a permanent branch), which is facing the highest number of security threats, to ensure better control of irregular migration and related trafficking, and the Diffa region, which poses a new security challenge.”

In terms of the coverage of personnel that have passed through the training, there is no comprehensive statistic. However, some information can be obtained from the institutions that provided the training. For example, by October 2016, EUCAP Sahel trained over 6000 members of the country’s internal security forces, armed forces and the judiciary (1). According to interviewees, by 2018, this figure may increase up to 10 000. However, a recent audit of the EUCAP Sahel underlined several weaknesses connected to different issues related to training.

There is training provided for anti-corruption issues. The extent or scope of the training offered defers according to the degree of risk relative to certain positions with increased depth provided for more senior officials. Anti-Corruption training is given in the context of the need for values in ethics. The NACS now also imposes a responsibility on heads of departments to incorporate ethics training in their departmental strategies (1), (2).

Training exists for certain posts. NACS includes an obligation to introduce training on anti-corruption, but it is not regular (1), (2).

There is training provided for anti-corruption issues. The extent or scope of the training offered differs according to the degree of risk relative to certain positions with increased depth provided for more senior officials (1), (2).

In 2016, a NATO Mobile Training Team conducted a “Building integrity in peacekeeping operations Course“. During the same year, 27 employees took part to international events in the field of integrity. In 2017 the MoD committed to a more systematic approach to training. It was decided that a pool of experts will be created that will conduct domestic courses for the administrative servants, the Armed forces and the cadets within the Military Academy, on a continuous basis. At the beginning of 2018, with strong support of the NATO BI Programme the MoD started the Train the Trainer Programme – ongoing. Meanwhile at the beginning of 2018, recognizing the importance of leadership in fighting corruption, the complete leadership of the MoD (heads of Departments to MoD) and the Armed Forces (head of Sections to CHOD) participated in basic course on anti-corruption and Integrity, conducted in Skopje by the UK Defence Academy. It covered the following topics: organisational behaviour, leadership challenges and military-political risks, financial management, risks of corruption in the area of logistics and procurement, risks of corruption in human resources management, media and strategic communication, and challenges presented by change [3].

How regularly anti-corruption training takes place is unclear. According to a high Ministry of Defence official, there are different types of anti-corruption trainings for employees in the defence sector based on the Building Integrity Plan of the Ministry. The trainings support the continuous detection, analysis and processing of the highest risks of corruption [1]. Following the January 2018 training, it is assumed that all high ranking and risk-related personnel were trained. In addition, the Ministry of Defence and Army Code of Ethics, which addresses issues of corruption, stipulates that every new member induction into the Ministry of Defence and Army has to be followed by a compulsory introduction to the Code’s content [2]. The Code therefore assumed basic knowledge of the potential corruption by every member of the defence sector.

The MoD indicates that both domestic and international anti-corruption trainings are open to every rank. Further the pool of experts includes 5 officers (major to colonel), 2NCO’s, 6 civil servants (junior associate to advisor), 1 media trained (civil servant) and 2 military academy professors [1]. Lower ranking members seem to be involved in the various integrity trainings. These trainings address issues related to finance, procurement and acquisition, personnel. High- and mid-level personnel are also trained in these fields. This supports the dissemination of anti-corruption policies and strengthens the fight against corruption [2]. It is assumed that all high ranking and risk-related personnel were trained. In addition, the Ministry of Defence and Army Code of Ethics, which addresses issues of corruption, stipulates that every new member induction into the Ministry of Defence and Army has to be followed by a compulsory introduction to the Code’s content [3].

Military and civilian personnel are required to take an e-course module called “Attitude, Ethics and Leadership”. Issues related to corruption and corruption risk are included in this training [1, 2]. The course is based on a number of different cases in form of short video clips. After each video clip the participant has to answer questions related to the particular case. For instance, one of the cases deals with a situation where an employee discovers that the head of a new charity centre has received a cottage from the construction company which built the centre. The e-course module addresses the connection between corruption and organisational values and standards, legislation, impact of the organisation, identification and reporting of corruption and risk management.

The e-course module “Attitude, Ethics and Leadership” covering issues related to corruption and corruption risk is mandatory for military and civilian personnel during the induction process [1, 2]. At the same time, the Armed Forces has developed a new training programme to better incorporate challenges related to the main risk areas, procurement and military operations. This initiative is a part of the Armed Forces anti-corruption programme [1].This training course is likely to be limited to ‘high risk positions’ [3].

The e-course module “Attitude, Ethics and Leadership” covering issues related to corruption and corruption risk is mandatory for personnel at each rank bracket of the military and equivalent for civilian personnel [1].

There is no evidence of anti-corruption training taking place for military or civilian personnel. According to two officers within the Omani armed forces, there has never been any training course that focuses on anti-corruption measures (1), (2). The State Audit Institution seeks to raise awareness and combat corruption across ministries as well as the private sector, examples of educational training with different ministries is posted on the website there is no mention however of training with military or civilian personnel (3). No reference to anti-corruption, or any sort of training is found on either the Ministry of Defence or the Royal Armed Forces website (4), (5). No media reports indicate any internal or external anti-corruption training has taken place involving military or civilian personnel (6), (7).

This sub-indicator has been marked as Not Applicable, as Oman does not have anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel within the defence and security sectors (1), (2), (3), (4), (5).

This sub-indicator has been marked as Not Applicable, as Oman does not have anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel within the defence and security sectors (1), (2), (3), (4), (5).

There is anti-corruption training that addresses the connection between corruption and some of the mentioned topics but not all the following topics: organizational values and standards, the impact of the organization, military effectiveness; identification and reporting of corruption, and risk management (1), (2). External organizations such as “AMAN” usually provide this training. This training is for both civilian and military personnel (3).

Anti-corruption training is done an ad hoc manner and only provided by donors or external organizations, funded by foreign donors (1), (2). For example, AMAN and other NGOs help in some agencies if funds are available. The government does not support these types of training courses. Aman’s website contains many of these training courses and sessions (3).

Coverage of anti-corruption training is discretionary and sporadic, and the vast majority of the employees never receive training. Nevertheless, the 2017 ACC report (1) mentions that they have reached 3000 people and organized around 300 activities, these activities are usually public conferences and workshops, but not targeted training courses with the specific goal of fostering anti-corruption measures and knowledge (2), (3).

There has been evidence of anti-corruption training given to military and civilian personnel by the Civil Service Commission and the Commission on Human Rights, as well as by international and multilateral institutions such as the Asian Development Bank and the International Development Law Organization [1, 2]. Training addresses topics such as organisational values and standards, the impact of the organisation, military effectiveness, risk management and the identification and reporting of corruption [1, 2, 3].

In most cases, anti-corruption is incorporated within human rights training, which is routinely provided at least once a year to military personel from the general headquarters level down to battalion units [1]. Successful completion of these courses is required to complete basic training and for induction, promotion, reassignment, and selection for foreign schooling opportunities [2].

As indicated in 48B, anti-corruption training is provided to military personel from the general headquarters level down to battalion units [1], including to the equivalent levels of civilian personnel [2].

Anti-corruption training is designed to raise awareness of corruption risks. They mainly address issues like what is corruption, the negative impact of corruption on the organisation and military effectiveness, and the reporting of corruption. To some extent, also issues on standards and corruption symptoms are described [1, 2].

From January 2017 to April 2019 16,000 soldiers and 5,000 civilian personnel have been trained. Most of them by military police through the framework of the MoD corruption prevention programme 2016-2019. Online training has been also provided by the anti-corruption unit in the minister’s office and by the Military Counterintelligence Agency.
Entry training is provided by the minister’s office for MoD civil service personnel in corruption risk positions. Promotion courses at the War Studies University contain anti-corruption classes.
Since September 2019, all MoD personnel on corruption risk positions participate in anti-corruption training once a year due to a new educational anti-corruption programme, signed by the defence minister [1].
The program has an indefinite character (an analysis is planned every two years to make possible changes) and is divided into the following tasks:
– basic training
– specialized training
– adaptation of new employees
– educational materials for persons in managerial positions
– educational materials for employees
– information brochures
– anti-corruption exercises.[2]

Training has been provided for unit commanders, directors of MoD departments (military and civilian) and their military and civilain personnel. There is no evidence of training provided for the defence minister and his deputies [1].

Professional training is overseen by the National Administration Institute [1], which offers specific training in ethics, integrity and anti-corruption [2]. They encompass organisational values and standards, organisational impact and identification/reporting of corruption, but no tailored training on military effectiveness. Induction into public administration requires initial training across levels [3]. Operational assistant [4] and technical assistant [5] careers are trained in public ethics and values. Public workers with undergraduate degrees are required to undergo induction which includes specific anti-corruption training [6]. The Secretariat-General of the Ministry of Defence (SGMoD) is mandated to oversee training across the MoD [7], and its corruption prevention plan mentions training [8], as does the Directorate-General of Defence Policy (DGDP) [9] and the Directorate-General of Defence Resources (DGRD) [10]. Training on anti-corruption for military personnel does not exist or is not registered in publicly available registries [11, 12, 13]

Anti-corruption training is delivered to public workers with undergraduate degrees on a mandatory basis as part of an induction training course [1] No military rank requires specific anti-corruption training. High-ranking [2] and mid-level [3] civilian positions are required to undergo additional training as a requirement for career advancement, which includes compliance. This applies to all civilian personnel in defence institutions.

Anti-corruption training is available to all civilian personnel through the National Administration Institute [1], but it is not mandatory. High-ranking [2] and mid-level personnel [3] are required to undergo specialist training in public administration, but the training does not cover anti-corruption. No military rank requires specific anti-corruption training: courses intended for promotion to the rank of general [4] and preparation for becoming a joint chief [5] do not specify anti-corruption training.

Anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel within the defence sector is superficial and rare. [1] As an officer said, ” we have two pieces of training every year that has a module on anti-corruption measures, but that’s all”. [2] In 2013, the Qatari government established the Rule of Law and Anti-Corruption Centre (ROLACC), which aims to ‘promote the latest methods and best practices currently available to address corruption and abuses of the rule of law, through capacity building, training, conferences, and seminars undermining corrupt practices in the region’. [3,4,5] The State Audit Bureau, in collaboration with ROLACC, has organised training on different topics, such as International standards ‘Bribing Public Employees’. [6,7] However, none of these apply to defence personnel. Moreover, the only mention of training provided to defence personnel in the country is not relevant to corruption. For example, the Ministry of Defence signed a three-year contract in 2014 with SERCO to deliver a training course to its officials. [8] Information about the training does not mention anything about anti-corruption.

Anti-corruption training is not regular. It is ad hoc and is part of other training courses, such as administrative or financial training. [1,2]

There are many “moral” training courses or social conversations among officers and soldiers organised by the “Ethical and Moral Guidance Unit”. However, discussion or training on corruption is rare. Most of this training is related to religion and nationality. [1,2]

The MoD regularly defines an anti-corruption plan that includes anti-corruption training. Clause 12 of the current 2018-2020 plan only requires anti-corruption training for civilian personnel [1]. The instructional guidelines for organising anti-corruption training for civilian personnel outline the content for training courses [2]. As detailed in Clause 5.1, this includes such topics as corruption as a social phenomenon, anti-corruption legislation, the status of civil servants and the code of conduct for civil servants, etc. [2].

The MoD official website does not provide any links to the announcements or results of any anti-corruption training in the last five years [2,3]. According to Interviewee 2, this training most probably took place on a regular basis [4]. There are several progress reports on activities conducted in 2019 [5,6,7].

The instructional guidelines for organising anti-corruption training for civilian personnel require the content of the training to include organisational values and standards, identification and reporting of corruption and risk management. There is no requirement to explain the connection between corruption and the impact of the organisation or military effectiveness.

Anti-corruption training is regularly included in the MoD anti-corruption plan [1]. While there are not any publicly available reports of any anti-corruption training in the last five years – which is the full research period [2,3], there is information about such events in 2019. In summer 2019, more than 200 anti-corruption training events, lectures and meetings on petty bribery were organised with low- and medium-level commanders and their deputies [4]. 11 MoD civil servants took part in a course designed for personnel of anti-corruption units [5]. In addition, classes on anti-corruption obligations were included in the professional training of all military units and more than 3,500 civil servants and employees took part in classes on assets declarations and conflicts of interest in 42 command and control bodies [6].

Consequently, we can assume that the training is semi-regular and is to some extent incorporated into the appointment process.

While there are no publicly available reports of any anti-corruption training over the entire research period [1,2], there is information about such events in 2019. For example, low-and medium-level commanders, their deputies and some other officers attended anti-corruption training on petty bribery in July-August 2019 [3]. 3,500 civil servants and employees were trained on conflicts of interest, while classes on anti-corruption obligations were included in the professional training of all military units [4]. It can therefore be assumed that although the trainings might sometimes be only focused on specific corruption topics, they are systemic, i.e. conducted not only for personnel in high-risk positions.

According to our sources within the army, there has not been any training course on anti-corruption in the last few years; however, civilian personnel confirm that a module on corruption is part of sporadic training courses on administrative technologies has happened. A current member of the Saudi Arabian National Guard stated that he had not undergone any anti-corruption training during his five years of service (1). Therefore, there is no indication that formal or regular anti-corruption training takes place for military and civilian personnel. Saudi Arabia’s “National Strategy for the Protection of Integrity and Combating Corruption” of 2007 stipulated increased training and funding for government bodies tasked with combatting corruption. It also encouraged academic institutions to conduct more research into themes of corruption (2). In August 2018, Nazaha urged government agencies to train their employees on the content of the Code of Conduct, though no reference was made specifically to anti-corruption training (3). According to a Gulf affairs expert, “there is no formal anti-corruption training that takes place on a regular basis for military or civilian personnel” (4).

This sub-indicator ir not applicable because, according to our sources, there have not been any training courses on anti-corruption in the MoD or the KSA army in the last five years.

This sub-indicator ir not applicable because, according to our sources, there have not been any training courses on anti-corruption in the MoD or the KSA army in the last five years.

Systematic anti-corruption training has not been established within the MoD and SAF yet, as such, it is difficult to evaluate the comprehensiveness of the courses provided to a portion of personnel. Since MoD and SAF representatives participate in different types of training on an ad hoc basis, the comprehensiveness varies accordingly. Some courses are very general, aimed at explaining the integrity building concept [1, 2], whereas the others focus on particular risks of corruption and ways of tackling them. For example, some of the courses address the risks of corruption in multinational operations or specific corruption risks in public procurement [1].

Other than the course included in the teaching programme at the Military Academy, training on anti-corruption does not happen regularly. MoD and SAF members participate in training when an opportunity opens up, supported mostly by external partners. For instance, two middle management level officers spent eight weeks on an internship in London, in cooperation with Transparency International and Embassy of the United Kingdom [1].

The number of personnel included in anti-corruption courses is relatively small. There is still no systematic training on risks of corruption and integrity building which cover all the MoD and SAF personnel [1]. Instead, individuals or small groups are involved in different types of training on an ad hoc basis in Serbia and abroad. For instance, during 2017, ten MoD and SAF representatives (middle and lower management level) participated in education events organised abroad. Fifteen MoD and SAF officials have been involved in different integrity building training in the country [1].

The Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) organises seminars on various aspects of professional ethics audits, corruption, and personnel vetting in the compulsory introductory-level courses that all Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) and civilian officers must go through as a part of anti-corruption training, including courses run by the Internal Audit Department [1].
Further, the IAD regularly conducts sharing sessions at milestone courses prescribed by MINDEF/SAF for Military and Civilian staff, conferences and events on professional ethics and corruption-related topics, as well as best practices. These include (i) Command Preparation Programmes and Courses for SAF officers; (ii) orientation courses like the Defence Foundation Programme for all new non-uniformed staff in MINDEF; (iii) Contract Management Courses; (iv) Defence Senior Managers Programmes; and (v) various conferences and events.
During these courses, participants are briefed on guidelines on organisational ethics (e.g. in relation to fraudulent claims, conflicts of interest, falsification of documents), corruption-related topics, as well as best practices [2].

MINDEF notes that MINDEF/SAF officers are required to attend anti-corruption and integrity trainings during induction and at milestones also undertke courses – and attend at least one such seminar per year [1]. The Internal Audit Department’s (IAD) talks on professional ethics and corruption-related topics for service personnel and modules are regularly conducted by the IAD at various military courses including the Defence Senior Managers Programme and Logistics Finance Officers Course, and other modules within professional military education and training courses aimed at junior officers [1, 2, 3, 4].

It is unknown whether anti-corruption training is made available across all ranks and vocations. Relevant training has been delivered to commissioned officers at various stages of their careers as part of professional growth and continuing education initiatives [1]. However it appears that these opportunities are not widely available to non-commissioned ranks, which make up the majority of the armed forces.

This is unclear as the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) does not make public the contents of its anti-corruption and fraud training courses and manuals. The Department of Defence (DoD) Annual Report refers only to the carrying out of anti-corruption awareness training, not to the details contained within them [1].

Anti-corruption and fraud awareness training is part of the induction process of both new uniformed and civilian personnel into the SANDF, and in 2003 was said to be carried out annually for personnel in the high-risk areas of Finance, Personnel, Acquisition, Procurement, and Logistics [1]. There is insufficient evidence of comprehensive anti-corruption training as part of promotion courses.

The DoD’s 2017/2018 Annual Report lists 48 ‘awareness activities on Corruption and Fraud’ as having taken place under the auspices of the Inspection and Audit Services subprogramme [2].

While comprehensive anti-corruption and fraud awareness training is prioritised for commanders and senior civilian personnel [1] along with those in high-risk areas [2], the SANDF has presented awareness courses to over ten thousand of its personnel across various ranks and roles [3].

A review of the content of Ministry of National Defence (MND)’s online anti-corruption training designed for military and civilian personnel shows that it focuses on understanding the new anti-corruption legislation implemented in 2016, the Improper Solicitation and Graft (ISG) Act. It also includes training courses with a focus on current anti-corruption policies and bribery charges with specific cases. Courses on the impacts of organisation and military effectiveness have not been identified in the current anticorruption training. [1] [2]

The Code of Conduct for Personnel at the Ministry of National Defence requires all military and civilian personnel, upon becoming high-ranking personnel, to take anti-corruption training, amounting to two hours per year in theory. While the training is delivered upon induction and is often conducted online, those in senior positions and generals are subject to onsite training. High-risk personnel involving in tenders, audits, defence contracts etc. must take anti-corruption training within 3 months of the job start date. [1]

All military and civilian personnel, upon becoming high-ranking personnel, must undergo anti-corruption training under the terms of the Code of Conduct for Personnel at the Ministry of National Defence. [1]

Official policy papers such as the SPLA White Paper on Defence, The SPLA Act 2009, and the Procurement Act do not have stipulations that mandate regular anticorruption training. [1] [2] [3]

Official policy papers such as the SPLA White Paper on Defence, The SPLA Act 2009, and the Procurement Act do not have stipulations that mandate regular anticorruption training. [1] [2] [3] As such, this indicator is marked ‘Not Applicable’.

Official policy papers such as the SPLA White Paper on Defence, The SPLA Act 2009, and the Procurement Act do not have stipulations that mandate regular anticorruption training. [1] [2] [3] As such, this indicator is marked ‘Not Applicable’.

According to the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (Centre for Social Research) (CIS), “corruption and fraud” are considered one of the five main problems in Spain (along with unemployment, economic problems, the behaviour of politicians, and political problems) [1], but it has been not possible to find any mention of specific anti-corruption training for military or civilian personnel in the defence sector. Experts interviewed also do not know whether any training on this has ever taken place. They affirm that since this specific training does not exist, it is surely not in the “enseñanza de formación,” (teaching training) whilst this does not rule out the possibility that anticorruption training is part of other courses [2, 3]. In particular, it is expected that corruption be addressed in the “Curso De Alta Gestión Del Recurso Financiero” [4] (High Management of Financial Resources Course) but access to the content has not been possible beyond a general overview that does not include an express reference to corruption. Given this, it is not possible to score this indicator and it is marked ‘Not Enough Information’.

In postgraduate courses on procurement, there is no express reference to anticorruption in the syllabi available on the internet, but it is assumed that this is included in the subjects related to control and monitoring. Master programmes include the “Official Master in Management of Public Sector Contracts and Programs, with special application to the Defence Field” offered by the Institute General Gutiérrez Mellado [5] and the “Master’s Degree in Administration and Management of Systems Acquisitions for Defence” offered by the University of Zaragoza [6].

When asked about anticorruption training, the answer by a representative of the Ministry of Defence was that procurement officers belong to the Intendance Corps of the navy and the army, their training is established by the respective study plans, and also that there are perfection courses on procurement. However, no details and no reference to the mandatory character of such courses or their periodicity were provided when the question was asked again [7]. The Ministry of Defence answered a formal request regarding anticorruption training channelled through the Portal of Transparency and said that “the students belonging to the Military Legal Corps, the Military Intervention Corps and the Intendance Corps of the Armies and the Navy receive a solid legal and deontological training in the field of administrative contracting and control of the economic and financial management of the Public Sector, which allows them to know, identify, prevent and, where appropriate, report any malpractice contrary to the legal system that they may warn in the exercise of their future professional duties” [8]. The ministry listed in its answer a total of 28 courses of advanced teaching related to finance, economic, logistics, administration, and others, which in the view of the ministry is related to public contracting [8]. However, none of these courses seem to be expressly related to anticorruption; and it was not possible to determine the extent to which each of the listed courses deals with anticorruption.

There is no evidence of specific regular anticorruption training provided. The Ministry of Defence answered a formal request regarding anticorruption training channelled through the Portal of Transparency and said that “the students belonging to the Military Legal Corps, the Military Intervention Corps and the Intendance Corps of the army and the navy receive a solid legal and deontological training in the field of administrative contracting and control of the economic and financial management of the public sector, which allows them to know, identify, prevent and, where appropriate, report any malpractice contrary to the legal system that they may warn in the exercise of their future professional duties” [1]. The Ministry of Defence listed in its answer a total of 28 courses of advanced teaching (apparently, none are expressly related to anticorruption) [1]. A general review of the courses more likely to contain contents related to anticorruption suggests that, in a best-case scenario, such training is delivered at induction and upon entry into high-risk positions and environments, and only once.

There is no evidence of specific anticorruption training provided. A general review of the 28 courses listed by the Ministry of Defence on advanced training as an answer to the question posed on anticorruption through the Portal of Transparency [1] suggests that none of them is specific to anticorruption, and that this topic is probably integrated as a small portion of other compliance training modules. Civilian personnel may also be part of the courses, an example being the course on High Management of the Financial Resources (“Alta Gestión del Recurso Financiero”), where six out of 25 sites are for civilian personnel “belonging to the industrial and financial sector of the Defence field” [2]. However, the Ministry of Defence acknowledged in its response that “with regard to civilian personnel, it is noted that in the Employment Training Plan, which is managed by the General Directorate of Personnel, training actions are planned after the request of the Units, Centers and Bodies of the Department, depending on the needs detected and the negotiation with the trade union organizations in the Social Action Work Group of the Delegate Table of Defence. In this sense, it is indicated that as of this date no proposals and/or needs to address specific training actions related to the matter have been raised” [1].

A search of the websites of the Ministries of Defence and Interior [1,2], as well as a broader internet search, yielded no evidence that the government of Sudan has proactively initiated any anti-corruption training events for military or civilian personnel in the public defence and security sector in the past five years. Moreover, the many paramilitary forces operating alongside the SAF certainly would not have participated in any government-initiated anti-corruption training nor any such training provided by international entities. While it is possible (but still unlikely) that some civilian personnel in the Ministries of Defence and Interior might have participated in some anti-corruption training organised and sponsored by an international organisation, the impact of such training would have been minimal given the Ministries’ miniscule level of control over defence and security resources and transactions; according to two experts on Sudan’s defence sector, the SAF, RSF and NISS have, for years, largely received and spent resources and generally operated outside the visibility of ministries or anyone else [3,4].

No evidence could be found that the government proactively provides anti-corruption training to any of its defence or security personnel. As such, this indicator is scored ‘Not Applicable’. It is possible (but still unlikely) that some civilian personnel in the Ministries of Defence and Interior might have participated in a one-off anti-corruption training event that might have been organised and sponsored by an international organisation or donor, according to two experts on Sudan’s defence sector [1,2].

No evidence could be found that the government proactively provides anti-corruption training to any of its defence or security personnel. As such, this indicator is scored ‘Not Applicable’. It is possible (but still unlikely) that some civilian personnel in the Ministries of Defence and Interior might have participated in a one-off anti-corruption training event that might have been organised and sponsored by an international organisation or donor, according to two experts on Sudan’s defence sector [1,2].

Anti-corruption training in the Armed Forces (SAF) involves both civil and military staff, and addresses the connection between corruption and SAF values and standards, the impact of corruption on the organisation and its military effectiveness, identification and reporting of corruption, and corruption prevention [1] [2] [3].

Anti-corruption training is delivered once at induction, and then again during promotions and upon entry into high risk positions and environments, along with security screenings and background checks [1].

Anti-corruption training is delivered to all staff, at each rank bracket of the military and the equivalent for civilian personnel [1].

There is no evidence that corruption training is done systematically for all employees across the board until recently. However, the Code of Conduct (COC) is binding for all employees covers organizational values, public perceptions, ethical and legal obligations, duty to report and behavioural rules [1]. The same is true for the compliance document of the Group “Defence” which contains links to an e-learning program [2]. A 2020 directive for the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport (DDPS) instructs every department to create a Specialist Unit Corruption (Fachstelle Korruption) which is tasked with “coordination awareness raising and training measures for employees (…) on corruption prevention.” (Article 3.d) but does not detail the content [3]. It is too early to assess the implementation of the directive at the time of writing. Employees working in high corruption risk areas like, for example, at Armasuisse get thematic training [4]. Armasuisse has installed a Specialist Corruption Unit which is in charge of coordinating awareness-raising and anti-corruption training following the previously mentioned DDPS directive [5, 6].

With all employees being bound by the Code of Conduct (COC) for Federal Personnel from induction [1] and some employees at the DDPS have additional specific codes or rules which they are likely to receive at induction [2, 3]. They are likely to be made aware of the basics of anti-corruption. Employees involved in high-risk activities in relation to corruption get training on the issue as modules include anti-corruption training. However, this is not done in set intervals and depends on the training an employee receives [4]. Armasuisse has installed a Specialist Corruption Unit which is in charge of coordinating awareness-raising and anti-corruption training in 2020, but it is too early to say anything about the implementation of that directive [3, 5].

Beyond the general rules on behaviour that are communicated upon entry into service (Code of Conduct for Federal Employees, specific codes and rules) [1, 2], there is no evidence that corruption training is otherwise provided systematically. However, employees working in high corruption risk areas like, for example, at Armasuisse get thematic training [3]. Armasuisse has also installed a Specialist Corruption Unit which is in charge of coordinating awareness-raising and anti-corruption training following a 2020 DDPS directive [4, 5].

Anti-corruption training programmes in Taiwan’s Military for both military and civilian personnel are designed at different levels on the basis of “Directive of Ethics and Integrity Guidelines for Military Personnel” and “Directions of Ethics and Integrity Guidelines for Military Personnel” for ethics and integrity which include organisational values and standards, the impact of the organisation, military effectiveness, identification and reporting of corruption, and risk management [1, 2, 3].

Regular training courses on anti-corruption are delivered to the entire armed forces of Taiwan on a regular basis every six months [1, 2]. Specific training programmes on ethics and integrity are designed as induction courses and for specific positions with high risks of bribery and conflicts of interest [1, 2].

Regular attendance of anti-corruption training programmes focusing on ethics and integrity is compulsory for all military and civilian personnel of the Ministry of National Defence [1, 2].

Anti-corruption training is regularly offered as part of the implementation of the National Anti-Corruption Strategy and Action Plan Phase III 2017-2022. [1] While no details were offered as to what specifically is taught in the defence sector, the plan more or less covers issues around values, standards, identification and reporting of corruption crimes. [2]

There is not enough information to score this indicator, as the regularity of anti-corruption training remains unclear. Without access to the anti-corruption workplan of the Tanzania People’s Defence Force (TPDF) or the ministry, supported by interviews or reports, it is not possible to judge this accurately. The current anti-corruption framework for the public service is the National Anti-Corruption Strategy and Action Plan, 2017-2022 (NACSAP III). This succeeded NACSAP II, originally envisaged to run from 2007-2010. The lag between NACSAP II and NACSAP III suggests waning enthusiasm for a programme that stressed anti-corruption training within the public service. Indeed, NACSAP III notes the failure to properly role out training under NACSAP II. [1]

There is not enough information to score this indicator due to limited details on the coverage of personnel. Without access to the anti-corruption workplan of the TPDF or the ministry, supported by interviews or reports, it is not possible to judge this accurately. The current anti-corruption framework for the public service is the National Anti-Corruption Strategy and Action Plan, 2017-2022 (NACSAP III). This succeeded NACSAP II, originally envisaged to run from 2007-2010. The lag between NACSAP II and NACSAP III suggests waning enthusiasm for a programme that stressed anti-corruption training within the public service. Indeed, NACSAP III notes the failure to properly role out training under NACSAP II. [1]

According to the Code of Conduct on Corruption Prevention and Suppression, implemented by the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters, activities are regularly conducted to foster commitment to anti-corruption within the armed forces. These activities include military orientation, anti-corruption education and anti-corruption training at all military levels [1]. Moreover, in accordance with the National Strategy on Corruption Prevention and Suppression Phase 3, the Anti-Corruption Education Course Fiscal Year 2018 was piloted with plans for it to be offered to military and civilian personnel in the future [2]. However, these courses only focus on organisational values and standards and the identification and reporting of corruption. The training topics usually include raising awareness, the development of effective anti-corruption policy, communication with the armed forces on corruption issues (such as the use of the Integrity and Transparency Assessment) and corruption prevention and resolution management (for example, the use of press releases about resolved cases to educate officers) [1,2].

According to the Code of Conduct on Corruption Prevention and Suppression 2019, formal anti-corruption training must be conducted every year for military and civilian personnel at all levels, but this policy has only been implemented recently [1]. Moreover, formal training on ethical issues has been conducted for military personnel on a monthly basis in accordance with the 4-Year Operational Plan for Corruption Prevention and Suppression Fiscal Year 2014-2017, implemented by the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters [2]. However, according to Interviewee 3, a senior military officer, training is held on an occasional basis but not very frequently, with personnel receiving general training on induction but not after [3]. Anti-corruption training is also conducted for those in high-risk positions and environments, such as procurement officials, but the content is usually generic [4].

According to the Code of Conduct on Corruption Prevention and Suppression 2019, formal anti-corruption training must be conducted at all military levels [1]. According to Interviewee 3, a senior military officer, anti-corruption training is appropriately delivered to personnel in each rank bracket of the military and the equivalent for civilian personnel [2]. However, some comprehensive training courses may only be attended by representatives, such as the operational training on the 20-year National Strategic Plan on Corruption Prevention and Suppression 2017-2036 for civilian personnel [3]. So far, the Anti-Corruption Education Course Fiscal Year 2018 has only piloted with some sample groups from the military and civilian populations [4]. These anti-corruption training events in the past show that only high-ranking officials have been invited to participate. Therefore, it seems that training is fairly regularly delivered to higher rank brackets of military personnel and also for the equivalent civilian personnel only.

According to our sources, there have been many courses organised by International NGOs, local NGOs, and INLUCC for the MoD personnel and army officers at medium and senior level (1,2). Several anti-corruption related workshops have been held by the High Academy of War (Ecole supérieure de la Guerre) in the last two years in collaboration with the DCAF Tunisia. These workshops had four subjects: good governance of the security sector in the light of international humanitarian law (3); good governance of the defence sector and crisis communication (4); good governance of the defence sector and the role of the armed forces in a democratic society (5); and legal framework in the fight against corruption and the concepts of whistleblower protection and conflicts of interest (6). Also, a program of cooperation between DCAF and INLUCC exists to support the agency in its interactions with the Ministry of Defence and other actors in the security sector (7). These programs cover organisational value, risk management, and identification of corruption and reporting.

According to our sources, there are efforts to do more training, but there is very sporadic intensive training that does not meet the needs of the MoD and INLUCC. Therefore such training is provided once every promotion or whenever the personnel are targeted by an NGO or a training program provided by an external institute (1,2). Several anti-corruption trainings were held in the last two years (3,4,5,6,7). These trainings were provided to the trainees and officers of the High Academy. The High Academy of War is a higher military education institution whose mission is to train senior officers of the Armed Forces (8). A collaboration between the Ministry of Defence, INLUCC and DCAF should help improve the regularity of these trainings in the near future (7).

The trainings that were held targeted trainees, officers and public officials of the High Academy of War (Ecole Supérieure de la Guerre) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5). According to our sources, other training targets administrative and financial officers within the MoD. (6,7)

As emphasised above, all officers and NCOs from the military finance branch attend courses on corruption and anti-bribery at their service schools (this is a 10-month period just before they are deployed to the units and HQs) and they also receive regular follow-up training to update their knowledge/awareness of these issues. However, as emphasised by Interviewees 3 and 4, the anti-corruption and anti-bribery training is superficial in nature and does not address more than values or standards [1,2]. Interviewee 4 emphasised that this training is held in the form of a series of financial ethics conferences. Please also note that there is no comprehensive anti-corruption training that all military/civilian personnel serving in the military are required to attend regularly. Interviewee 6 suggested that, during his 25 years of military service, he did not witness any anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel working in the defence/security sector, except for those in the finance branch [3].

We can therefore assume that only military personnel in the finance branch and civilian personnel working in the field of finance management receive training on anti-corruption and integrity-related issues, mostly in the months of October and November as part of the preparations for the subsequent budget year, but not all personnel.

As noted in 48A, there is no comprehensive anti-corruption training that covers all military and/or civilian personnel working in defence institutions. As such, this indicator is marked ‘Not Applicable’. Interviewee 4 emphasised that this training is held in the form of a series of financial ethics conferences [1]. Please also note that there is no comprehensive anti-corruption training that all military/civilian personnel serving in the military are required to attend regularly.

As there is no evidence through publicly available information on anti-corruption training for military and civilian personnel, this indicator is marked ‘Not Applicable’.

There are no specialised training on corruption related topics which is conducted by the ministry of defence per say but occassional trainings takes place that may include anti-corruption. However, while training does take place, some critics believe it serves a different purpose. According to one MP [1], some of the training is conducted to please the donor communities. For example, they are never implemented conclusively, rendering the training superficial.

Training take place in the Ministry of Defence and Veterans Affairs (MoDVA) for both the military and civilians [1]. The MoDVA often receives trainers from the State House Anti-corruption Unit to train the staff [2]. This training has no specific time frames.

According to the deputy army spokesperson, promotions comes with more responsibilities that call for further training [1], while an MP claimed that the whole process of training is “selective” [2].

There is evidence that anti-corruption training takes place within the MoD. These are comprehensive and address topics such as “Tools and Organizations in the Prevention and Counteraction of Corruption”, “Human Resources Management: The Role of the Human Factors in the Prevention of Corruption”, “Transparency and Accountability: Risk Management in the Field of Budget Finance and Procurement”, “Forms and Methods of Conflict of Interest Settlement”, “Importance of integrity in preventing corruption”, “Setting up of a preventive anti-corruption system”, “Legal mechanisms for the prevention of corruption”, “Personnel management: the role of the human factor in preventing corruption”, “Transparency and accountability: risk management in the field of budget financing and procurement” and “The Role of the Public and Mass Media in Reduced Corruption” [1,2]. At the same time, there does not seem to be any training on corruption and military effectiveness.

There is evidence that anti-corruption s are being regularly conducted [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. There is no evidence, however, that there is an approach in place envisaging educational courses for high-risk personnel more often than for all others. The aim seems to be to cover as many MoD personnel as possible through the “Building integrity and reducing corruption risk” educational course. There is a Scientific Centre on Building Integrity in the Defence and Security Sector (BITEC) as a part of the National Defence University of Ukraine. BITEC operates educational courses and training programs for managers and representatives of the subdivisions of the MoD, the General Staff of the AFU, heads of state enterprises etc. Six groups were trained during 2016 and 122 individuals upgraded their qualifications. 65 individuals were trained on specialized courses on the prevention of corruption during the preparation and implementation of international peacekeeping operations. In total, more than 800 individuals were trained in 2016 [6]. However, there is no evidence that training is provided upon induction.

BITEC operates educational courses and training programs for managers and other representatives of the subdivisions of the MOD, the General Staff of the AFU, heads of state enterprises, etc. [1, 2, 3, 4]. During the second half of 2018, 2019 and 2020 BITEC Center Under the National Defence University of Ukraine (NDU) systemized and organized the number of different types of building integrity and anticorruption courses: special courses at NDU (3-5 days); mobile courses in the regions or military units; on-line course. It is impossible to call them sporadic now and all international partners admit it, for example, special defence adviser of Great Britain, representatives of UK Defence Academy, Center for Integrity in Defence Sphere (CIDS, Norway). All this information is open and available at BITEC web-site [5].

There is no evidence of any anti-corruption training taking place within the defence sector. Despite the fact that the UAE has been vehemently expressing its commitment to countering corruption in the country (1), (2), none of these expressed commitments have been of relevance to the defence sector. For instance, the UAE has repeatedly expressed its intention to establish an anti-corruption unit, within the Ministry of Defence; however, there is no evidence of the unit’s establishment (3). Moreover, web-based research in Arabic and English about anti-corruption training in the defence sector and the armed forces does not come up with any results of relevance. There is no evidence to support that anti-corruption training takes place within the defence sector (4), (5).

This sub-indicator has been marked as Not Applicable as there is no evidence of anti-corruption training taking place for military and civilian personnel in the defence sector, and thus assessing its regularity is not relevant to this context (1), (2).

This sub-indicator has been marked as Not Applicable as there is no evidence of anti-corruption training taking place for military and civilian personnel in the defence sector, and thus assessing its coverage of personnel is not relevant to this context (1), (2).

The UK is part of “Building Integrity”, a NATO-led capacity building programme providing practical tools to help nations strengthen integrity, transparency and accountability, and reduce the risk of corruption in the defence and security sector [1]. The programme addresses all aspects of governance in the defence and security sector, including operations. It also addresses the connection between corruption and the following topics: organisational values and standards, impact of the organisation, military effectiveness; identification and reporting of corruption, and risk management [1, 2].

BI UK has been providing training for all Defence Attaché and Loan Service Staff since 2017, prior to their appointments overseas. However, BI Modules are not included on any of the Command and Staff training courses at Shrivenham, nor in any basic level training for personnel joining the Forces/Civil Service [3].

In parallel, induction training for British Army staff covers integrity and army values which touches on anti-corruption [4].

Evidence suggests that the training provided within ‘Building Integrity’ is delivered five to six times annually for senior military officers and officials [1]. Outside this programme, evidence suggests that the training given to military personnel upon induction also covers integrity, which is one of the values and standards of the British Army [2]. There is no evidence to indicate that anti-corruption training is included in promotion courses.

Evidence suggests that the training provided within ‘Building Integrity’ is delivered only for senior military officers and officials [1]. Other rank brackets receive some level of anti-corruption/integrity training upon induction [2].

The DoD’s Joint Ethics Regulation (JER) guides and regulates all the US joint ethics training programmes [1]. The JER require that all DoD employees, including both civilian and military personnel, receive annual ethics training (Article 11-200), although only one hour of training is mandated (Article 11-301). Moreover, on induction, new employees need to complete ethics training within 90 days of joining the DoD, or within 180 days for active duty military personnel (Article 11-300). DoD Agencies are required to develop annual Ethics Training Plans (Article 11-302). Training materials include training videos, satellite broadcasts of training and videos of the broadcasts, modular training packages with copies of overhead slides, facilitator scripts, discussion hypotheticals, handout material, texts, correspondence courses, and computer games (Article 11-303) [1].

The Institute for Ethics in Government also has a range of training courses available to all defence employees on ethics issues including financial conflicts of interest & impartiality; misuse of position; outside activities; secondary employment [2]. On the question of reporting of corruption, the DoD has issued guidelines on using its hotline to report fraud, waste and corruption, intended to help personnel better report corruption. No evidence of wider training is available, though, aside from the training delivered to hotline operators [3].

It should also be noted that the DoD’s Defense Contract Management Agency personnel have specific annual training on Fraud Awareness, in order to better equip them to identify fraud, waste and corruption risks in contract management process [4]. New employees are also required to have Fraud Awareness training within their first 90 days. The policy also requires all employees to report corruption and corruption where identified as a matter of course [4].

The JER require that all DoD employees, including both civilian and military personnel, receive annual ethics training (11-200), although only one hour of training is mandated (11-301). Moreover, on induction, new employees need to complete ethics training within 90 days of joining the DoD, or within 180 days for active duty military personnel (11-300) [1]. The Institute of Ethics in Government also has courses available on a rolling basis on ethics issues for all government employees, including in the defence sector [2]. It could not be assessed how effectively these provisions are implemented in practice. Finally, the DoD’s Defense Contract Management Agency personnel receive specific Fraud Awareness training upon induction and on an annual basis [3].

It remains unclear to what extent anti-corruption is covered in the DoD’s more general ethics and fraud, waste and abuse training. Nevertheless, aside from general ethics trainings, there does not appear to be specific anti-corruption training delivered to all military personnel. Rather, such corruption-risk specific training appears to focus more on staff in sensitive areas, such as contract management [1].

Anti-corruption training is superficial, mainly dealing with fiscal control and other administrative procedures. Anti-corruption training materials designed by the Office of the Comptroller General of the National Bolivarian Armed Forces (CONGEFANB) are geared towards audits without offering any comprehensiveness or distinguishing between the various forms of corruption that can be committed by staff [1, 2].

Most of the principles and values presented in these trainings are politicised and used to refer to government programs. Evidence suggests that trainings across the various sectors of the public power highlight the civic-military union promoted by the regime, offering courses and trainings between the CGR and CONGEFANB [3]. The training is not specific to military and civilian personnel and is merely voluntary.

Training received by staff is carried out very sporadically under the framework of fiscal control courses. While CONGEFANB annually offers various training courses on public administration processes for the defence sector, there is no evidence to suggest that anti-corruption training is provided on an ongoing basis [1]. Given the absence of an anti-corruption policy internal to the MPPD and the little observable interest in measures to prevent corruption on the part of this sector [2], it was impossible to find information regarding any frequency of these trainings beyond sporadic talks and presentations on the part of the CONGEFANB. Available official documents indicate that CONGEFANB conducted monthly training courses in fiscal control and public administration up to 2015; however, there is no up-to-date information demonstrating the current frequency of these courses [3].

Anti-corruption training is incorporated as part of the courses on public administration and fiscal control offered by CONGEFANB [1]. As such, this is not mandatory and does not form part of the general training of military and civilian personnel of the MPPD – only the training ofthose who undertake courses with CONGEFANB. Following an exhaustive search for information and consultation with experts, no evidence of basic or general anti-corruption training was found for military personnel who did not participate in these voluntary academic courses [2, 3].

Issues of corruption are left to the garrison commander to handle. The army does not have specific or particular training for military personnel on anti-corruption [1]. The commander in his brief or his unit’s standing orders will read to their troops, providing anecdotal information on corrupt behaviour. For instance, issues to do with signing for travel allowances when someone is not actually travelling, yet the allowances are deposited into their account when they are at home [1, 2]. The military has no specific program to address these in training. They are just said at parades or other events [1, 2].

This indicator is marked “Not Applicable,” as there is no anti-corruption training.

This indicator is marked “Not Applicable,” as there is no anti-corruption training.

Country Sort by Country 48a. Comprehensiveness Sort By Subindicator 48b. Regularity Sort By Subindicator 48c. Coverage of personnel Sort By Subindicator
Albania 50 / 100 25 / 100 25 / 100
Algeria 0 / 100 NA NA
Angola 25 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Argentina 0 / 100 NA 0 / 100
Armenia 75 / 100 50 / 100 50 / 100
Australia 50 / 100 50 / 100 50 / 100
Azerbaijan 25 / 100 NA 0 / 100
Bahrain 0 / 100 NA NA
Bangladesh 25 / 100 75 / 100 25 / 100
Belgium 100 / 100 75 / 100 75 / 100
Bosnia and Herzegovina 100 / 100 50 / 100 75 / 100
Botswana 25 / 100 25 / 100 0 / 100
Brazil 50 / 100 75 / 100 75 / 100
Burkina Faso 0 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Cameroon 25 / 100 0 / 100 25 / 100
Canada 25 / 100 25 / 100 0 / 100
Chile 0 / 100 NA NA
China 75 / 100 50 / 100 100 / 100
Colombia 75 / 100 100 / 100 100 / 100
Cote d'Ivoire 25 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Denmark 25 / 100 25 / 100 75 / 100
Egypt 0 / 100 NA NA
Estonia 75 / 100 25 / 100 25 / 100
Finland 25 / 100 NEI NEI
France 50 / 100 75 / 100 75 / 100
Germany 75 / 100 75 / 100 100 / 100
Ghana 0 / 100 NA NA
Greece 25 / 100 0 / 100 25 / 100
Hungary 0 / 100 NA NA
India 50 / 100 75 / 100 75 / 100
Indonesia 25 / 100 25 / 100 25 / 100
Iran 0 / 100 NA NA
Iraq 0 / 100 NA NA
Israel 50 / 100 50 / 100 25 / 100
Italy 75 / 100 75 / 100 50 / 100
Japan 50 / 100 75 / 100 75 / 100
Jordan 25 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Kenya 25 / 100 NA NA
Kosovo NEI NEI 100 / 100
Kuwait 25 / 100 25 / 100 75 / 100
Latvia 100 / 100 50 / 100 50 / 100
Lebanon 75 / 100 0 / 100 50 / 100
Lithuania 50 / 100 25 / 100 50 / 100
Malaysia 50 / 100 100 / 100 100 / 100
Mali 0 / 100 25 / 100 50 / 100
Mexico 25 / 100 NEI NEI
Montenegro 25 / 100 50 / 100 75 / 100
Morocco 0 / 100 NA NA
Myanmar 0 / 100 NA NA
Netherlands 75 / 100 100 / 100 75 / 100
New Zealand 100 / 100 50 / 100 50 / 100
Niger 25 / 100 0 / 100 25 / 100
Nigeria 50 / 100 25 / 100 50 / 100
North Macedonia 100 / 100 50 / 100 75 / 100
Norway 100 / 100 50 / 100 100 / 100
Oman 0 / 100 NA NA
Palestine 75 / 100 0 / 100 25 / 100
Philippines 100 / 100 100 / 100 100 / 100
Poland 75 / 100 75 / 100 50 / 100
Portugal 50 / 100 25 / 100 25 / 100
Qatar 25 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Russia 75 / 100 25 / 100 25 / 100
Saudi Arabia 25 / 100 NA NA
Serbia 25 / 100 0 / 100 25 / 100
Singapore 75 / 100 100 / 100 75 / 100
South Africa 50 / 100 75 / 100 75 / 100
South Korea 75 / 100 100 / 100 75 / 100
South Sudan 0 / 100 NA NA
Spain NEI 25 / 100 25 / 100
Sudan 0 / 100 NA NA
Sweden 100 / 100 50 / 100 100 / 100
Switzerland 50 / 100 25 / 100 50 / 100
Taiwan 100 / 100 100 / 100 100 / 100
Tanzania 75 / 100 NEI NEI
Thailand 50 / 100 50 / 100 75 / 100
Tunisia 75 / 100 25 / 100 50 / 100
Turkey 0 / 100 NA NA
Uganda 25 / 100 25 / 100 0 / 100
Ukraine 75 / 100 25 / 100 75 / 100
United Arab Emirates 0 / 100 NA NA
United Kingdom 75 / 100 75 / 100 100 / 100
United States 50 / 100 NA NA
Venezuela 25 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Zimbabwe 0 / 100 NA NA

With thanks for support from the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs who have contributed to the Government Defence Integrity Index.

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