Does the country have an openly stated and effectively implemented anti-corruption policy for the defence sector?
7a. Anti-corruption policy
Angola score: 0/100
There is no anti-corruption policy, or there is one but it explicitly does not apply to the defence sector.
There is an openly stated anti-corruption policy, but it is unclear if it applies to the defence sector or the government is in process of developing one that applies to the defence sector.
There is an openly stated anti-corruption policy that applies to the defence sector.
Currently, no specific defence-sector anti-corruption policy exists. The 1994 Law on Military Crimes establishes that corruption-related offences are punishable under civilian law. The Angolan authorities have been working on a draft bill of a new Military Criminal Code in cooperation with the Brazilian Military Justice authorities, which reportedly will include corruption-related offences (2).
The 2018 IMF notes on Governance and Economic Performance in Angola, states “Since the end of civil conflict in 2002, Angola has implemented a legal framework for supporting good governance and combating corruption, Despite these efforts, Angola did not catch up with peers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and continues to underperform in many areas of governance. This reflects several factors, including remaining deficiencies in legal and regulatory frameworks, patchy law enforcement, and the lack of independent and well-resourced anti-corruption institutions” (3). This shows that though the legal framework addresses national corruption, it reflects the weak environment of anti-corruption measures in the defence and security sectors.
1. “Juíz militar aponta males da corrupção, “ Angop, March 3, 2018. http://www.angop.ao/angola/pt_pt/noticias/politica/2018/2/9/Juiz-militar-aponta-males-corrupcao,1c6c90bb-cc3e-4a5f-9c6d-c700fbb9469e.html.
2. Ministério Público Militar do Brasil, “COMISSÃO CONCLUI ESTRUTURAÇÃO DO ANTEPROJETO DE CÓDIGO PENAL MILITAR DE ANGOLA,” Ministério Público Militar do Brasil, November 6, 2017. http://www.mpm.mp.br/comissao-conclui-estruturacao-do-anteprojeto-de-codigo-penal-militar-de-angola/.
3. Angola: Selected Issues. Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2018. https://www.imf.org/~/media/Files/Publications/CR/2018/cr18157.ashx.
7b. Effective implementation
Angola score: NA/100
There is no action plan to implement the policy, nor have any actions been taken.
There is an action plan at the ministry level but it is superficial, and does not address the institutional weaknesses in the system, OR there efforts to implement an action plan at the national level.
There is an action plan at the ministry level that reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system, but no actions have been taken to implement it.
There is an action plan at the ministry level that reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system. While steps have been taken to implement the plan, it is either behind schedule, or implementation is not addressing the priority items in the action plan.
The action plan at the ministry level reflects the institutional weaknesses in the system, and implementation has progressed according to the estimated timeline.
There is no action plan to implement a defence-specific anti-corruption policy since no such explicit policy exists. Thus, this indicator has been marked Not Applicable.
Military members are subject to civil law for corruption-related offences. Since João Lourenço took office, the pace of prosecution of public servants and senior officials on corruption charges appears to have sped up, though it’s too early to judge whether these are temporary and selective measures or part of a sustained policy that would also include the defence sector (1).
After publicly announcing in April that Chief of Staff of the Angolan Armed Forces, General Sachipengo Nunda, was named a formal suspect of criminal association in a $50 million scam led by a Thai businessman, the attorney general later apologized claiming his announcement was a “mistake”, and the Supreme Court later dropped the charges. Angolan media have interpreted the announced prosecution of General Nunda as politically motivated (for being a former UNITA general), rather than the result of a sustained anti-corruption policy (2).
1. Rafael Marques de Morais. “Alta Tensão nas Forças Armadas,“ Maka Angola, September 22, 2018. https://www.makaangola.org/2018/09/alta-tensao-nas-forcas-armadas/.
2. Rafael Marques de Morais. “Angola’s Attorney General ‘Sorry for Mistake’ in Accusing Army Chief,” Maka Angola, April 16, 2018. https://www.makaangola.org/2018/04/angolas-attorney-general-sorry-for-mistake-in-accusing-army-chief/.
Compare scores by country
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|Country||7a. Anti-corruption policy||7b. Effective implementation|
|Albania||75 / 100||25 / 100|
|Algeria||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Angola||0 / 100||NA|
|Argentina||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Armenia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Australia||25 / 100||NA|
|Azerbaijan||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Bahrain||50 / 100||NA|
|Bangladesh||0 / 100||NA|
|Belgium||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Botswana||0 / 100||NA|
|Brazil||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Cameroon||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Canada||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Chile||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|China||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Colombia||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||100 / 100||0 / 100|
|Denmark||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Egypt||0 / 100||NA|
|Estonia||75 / 100||NA|
|Finland||25 / 100||NA|
|France||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Germany||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Ghana||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Greece||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Hungary||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|India||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Indonesia||50 / 100||NA|
|Iran||50 / 100||NA|
|Iraq||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Israel||50 / 100||75 / 100|
|Italy||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Japan||0 / 100||NA|
|Jordan||50 / 100||NEI|
|Kenya||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Kosovo||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Kuwait||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Latvia||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Lebanon||50 / 100||NA|
|Lithuania||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Malaysia||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Mali||0 / 100||NA|
|Mexico||75 / 100||25 / 100|
|Montenegro||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Morocco||25 / 100||NA|
|Myanmar||0 / 100||NA|
|Netherlands||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|New Zealand||75 / 100||NEI|
|Niger||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Nigeria||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|North Macedonia||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Norway||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Oman||0 / 100||NA|
|Palestine||0 / 100||NA|
|Philippines||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Poland||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Portugal||0 / 100||NA|
|Qatar||0 / 100||NA|
|Russia||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Serbia||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Singapore||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|South Africa||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|South Korea||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|South Sudan||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Spain||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Sudan||0 / 100||NA|
|Sweden||25 / 100||NA|
|Switzerland||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Taiwan||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Tanzania||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Thailand||100 / 100||25 / 100|
|Tunisia||100 / 100||50 / 100|
|Turkey||0 / 100||NA|
|Uganda||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Ukraine||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||50 / 100||NA|
|United Kingdom||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|United States||25 / 100||NA|
|Venezuela||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Zimbabwe||100 / 100||NEI|