Do the armed forces have military doctrine addressing corruption as a strategic issue on operations?
51a. Military doctrine
Burkina Faso score: 25/100
The country does not consider corruption a strategic issue for operations.
The armed forces may be aware of corruption as a strategic issue for operations, but there is no explicit doctrine on this subject.
The country has a military doctrine addressing corruption issues for peace and conflict, which briefly addresses how to mitigate this challenge, but there is little emphasis on the practicalities of implementation.
The country has a comprehensive and detailed military doctrine addressing corruption issues for peace and conflict operations, including the recognition that deployments can exacerbate corruption risks. However, the doctrine may not address risks at all levels or may not provide detailed and practical guidance for implementation.
The country has a comprehensive and detailed military doctrine addressing corruption issues for peace and conflict operations at strategic, operational and tactical levels. The doctrine recognises that international actors can contribute to increasing corruption risks and offers guidance on mitigating these risks. Issues addressed by the doctrine include support for political actors, contracting, interaction with local population, partnering with local forces, and security sector reform in operational contexts. The doctrine also details the practicalities of implementation.
There is no evidence that Burkina Faso’s military has a doctrine addressing corruption as a strategic issue on operations. However, the military does recognize corruption as a strategic issue that could affect operations. For example, they know that when the recruitment process is poor and corrupt; it could lead to them fielding young men and women who are not a good fit for the job. Article 44 of Law N° 038 (2016) imposes an investigation on all the recruits and a medical check before they are accepted. Article 45 says that “recruits who are medically found unable to join the contingent are sent back home” (1). Majeed, Muhammad Tariq and Ronald MacDonald support this argument that “in the presence of the military operations (either combat or non-combat operations) one direct effect is a rise in the military budget, and that military officials manipulate the military budget for private gains” (2). Moreover, for many years, the military, deployed in Liberia and the Central African Republic (CAR) for peacekeeping operations, openly accused the military hierarchy of embezzling great parts of the funds allocated for their participation in these operations (3), (4). Furthermore, the military knows that the National Anti-Corruption Network (REN-LAC), has recently classified the Municipal Police as the most corrupted government institution (6). Finally, TI-DS (2016) says that “None of the top 25 UN troop Contributing Countries (TCCs) for peacekeeping operations, have military doctrine that addresses corruption as a strategic threat to operations.” Indeed, Burkina Faso is a UN/TCCs (6).
1. “Law N° 038 On the general status for the personnel of the national Armed Forces,” (2016), https://www.assembleenationale.bf/IMG/pdf/loi_038_statut_general_fan.pdf.
2. Muhammad Tariq Majeed and Ronald MacDonald, “Corruption and the Military in Politic: Theory and Evidence from around the World,” University of Glasgow (University of Glasgow), s.d. https://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_184189_en.pdf.
3. Boureima Ouedraogo, “L’Armée et l’exercice du pouvoir au Burkina Faso: En seignment de l’insurrection populaire du 30-31 octobre 2014,” Notes Internationales CIDOB, 2015.
4. “Burkina Faso: Contingents de l’ecomog: une plainte contre l’etat Burkinabè,” AllAfrica, November 13, 2001, http://allafrica.com/stories/200111130410.html.
5. Member of the Defence and Security Committee of the Parliament, interview by author, June 12, 2018.
6. “Corruption & Peace Operations: Risks and recommendations for Troop Contributing Countries and the United Nations,” Transparency International – Defence & Security, 2016, http://ti-defence.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/160330CorruptionRiskTCCsTIIDSPFIN.pdf.
Burkina Faso score: NA/100
No aspect of the doctrine is made publicly available.
Some aspects of the doctrine are made publicly available, but not all of them.
The doctrine is made publicly available.
Since there is no military doctrine that considers corruption a strategic issue for operations, this sub-indicator has been marked Not Applicable.
Compare scores by country
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|Country||51a. Military doctrine||51b. Transparency|
|Algeria||0 / 100||NA|
|Angola||0 / 100||NA|
|Burkina Faso||25 / 100||NA|
|Cameroon||0 / 100||NA|
|Cote d'Ivoire||0 / 100||NA|
|Egypt||0 / 100||NA|
|Ghana||25 / 100||NA|
|Jordan||0 / 100||NA|
|Kuwait||25 / 100||NA|
|Lebanon||25 / 100||NA|
|Mali||0 / 100||NA|
|Morocco||0 / 100||NA|
|Niger||0 / 100||NA|
|Nigeria||25 / 100||NA|
|Oman||0 / 100||NA|
|Palestine||0 / 100||NA|
|Qatar||0 / 100||NA|
|Saudi Arabia||25 / 100||NA|
|Tunisia||0 / 100||NA|
|United Arab Emirates||0 / 100||NA|