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Q38.

Is the number of civilian and military personnel accurately known and publicly available?

38a. Accuracy

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SCORE: 50/100

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38b. Transparency

Score

SCORE: 50/100

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38c. Ghost soldiers

Score

SCORE: 100/100

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The Ministry of Finance and Economy (MoF) publishes the total number of Ministry of Defence (MoD) and armed forces personnel when the annual budget is approved [1]. The aggregated total number is updated every year by the MoF when the annual budget is adopted [2].
The number of MoD personnel in 2015 – 9,001 employees, in 2016 – 8,854 employees, in 2017 – 8,860 employees, in 2018 – 8,973 employees. The increase in 2018 stems from the Directorate of Civil Emergencies, formerly in the Ministry of Interior, it was added to the MoD [3]. The overall number of MoD personnel is updated every year and is accurate.

Other than the figures provided by the MoF, the disaggregated number of civilian and military personnel are not made public by the MoD [1]. Although the data is published by the MoF, the MoD itself shows a low level of transparency regarding personnel data.

The number of armed forces personnel has been reduced from about 31,000 in the mid-2000s to less than 9,000 current personnel members [1], the reduction has made it impossible to keep redundant people on the military payroll [2], although discrepancies often appear between people on the payroll and active-duty members [3].

No information on the number of civilian or military personnel could be found on the website of the Ministry of Defence (1). Within the framework of the national service, the government undertakes a census. National service is compulsory for all Algerian citizens over the age of 19 in the defence of the sovereignty and integrity of the national territory. The census takes place from January to September every year. It is made publicly known to citizens through the press and posters in public buildings, such as municipalities, and post offices. Citizens have to provide their national identity card and birth certificate for the census (2). Since it is a very formalized process, it seems plausible that the number of civilian and military personnel is accurately collected by the PNA. However, it is not done so officially and is not published.
The Ministry of Defence also has created a website for military recruitment and drafting, but it does not provide information regarding the number of civilian and military personnel (5). The National Statistical Office published a figure of the persons working in the local authorities and public administrations. Its last report, which covered the period from 2014 until 2016, did not provide any information on civilian or military personnel working in the armed forces (3). The only number that was found with regards to civilians working for the military refers to the employees of military factories which amounted to nearly 30,000 civil workers (4).

No information on the number of civilian and military personnel could be found on the Ministry of Defence website (1).

The only figures that could be found are from international sources. According to Military Balance of 2018, the PNA has 130,000 active soldiers (Army 110,000, Navy 6,000, Airforce 14,000). The numbers include conscripts who serve 18 months in the army (6 months of basic training, 12 months with regular army often involving civil projects). There is also a military reserve of 150,000 to age 50. Paramilitary troops amount to 187,200 (2). According to Global Fire Power, Algerian military personnel amounts to 792,350 of which 520,000 are active and 272,350 are reservists (3). According to a paper published by NATO, the number of Algerian active soldiers is 512,000, while the number of reservists is 400,000 (4).

No evidence was found that ghost soldiers have been a problem within the Algerian armed forces. No report could be found in the media concerning this issue, also see the last country assessment.

The last country assessment mentioned the Groupe de légitime defence (GLD), which had fought in the civil war in the 1990s and received money without being under the control of the military. According to a report in 2014, they benefited from an exceptional retirement (1). In the summer of 2018, there was another report saying that a group of the GLD in Bouria urged the authorities again to respond positively to the demands of the GLD, which includes exceptional proportion retirement pensions and social security contributions for their commitment alongside the security services during the civil war (2). No other relevant information could be found.

The database of civilian and military personnel is currently being evaluated and updated. No detailed numbers have been officially published about the personnel of the Angolan Armed Forces, the intelligence services, the President’s Security Bureau and paramilitary forces. In 2018, a global figure of 100,000 was given for the FAA during the parliamentary state budget discussions. The Minister of Defence stated that over 94% of the approved budget was for expenses with personnel. The head of the president’s Security Bureau indicated that 81% of its budget was for personnel expenses. However, no evidence was provided to back up their claims (1), (2), (3). One major point of criticism from the opposition party UNITA has been the lack of transparency over the number of domestic intelligence or paramilitary agents whose main task is to spy on ruling party critics within state institutions, and the weight of those salaries in the defence budget (2).

There is no official information made public by the Ministry of Defense.

Ghost veterans appear to be a major problem. The most recent push to eliminate ghost veterans entitled to pension payments (an estimated 49,000) was initiated in late 2016 under then-defence minister João Lourenço and is still ongoing (1).

The number of civilian personnel is updated at least once a year by the Civil Service Council. The number is accurate; there is no evidence from alternative sources that the figures provided by the council are debatable. A 2017 report states that the number of civil personnel at the Ministry of Defence (MoD) is 398 compared to the 400 and 412 for 2016 and 2015 respectively [1]. As for military personnel, the accurate number is considered and there no source with an exact number of the military personnel. Global Firepower suggests that active military personnel numbers 44,800 for 2018 [2].

The number of civilian and military personnel is not made publicly available by the MoD, but the figures of civilian personnel are on the website of the Civil Service Council. Military personnel figures may be acquired through the Global Firepower website [1].

Some experts believe “ghost soldiers” existed, but no evidence was found in either the media or through relevant research [1, 2].
MoD claims, that “ghost soldiers” do not exist in the armed forces and have not existed in the last 5 years [3].

The Ministry of Defence (MoD) does not provide totals of civilian nor military personnel. There are other sources; however, Military Balance publication, CIA Factbook and others provide estimates, though of course, this is not official data. The latter publications only give numbers of military personnel, not civilians. In 2013, President Ilham Aliyev signed a decree on the MoD, the ministry’s structure, the total number of servicemen and civil servants, and the list of senior military posts in the ministry (1). Information and figures in this direction are not publicly available. In 2013 the minister of defence gave a different number of personnel in the army (2).

According to the Law on State Secret (1) the organizational structure of the troops, the number of personnel is considered as a state secret (Article 5.1.5). The minister of defence sometimes talks about some figures. During last press conference (June 20, 2018), he said that the army uses 500 tonnes of meat per month and that 15 per cent of those serving in the army are conscript soldiers, and the remaining 80 per cent – officers, and contractors (2). Zakir Hasanov, also said that 60 per cent of the military personnel, or more than 50,000 servicemen, are serving in the front line. Up to 21,000 civilians have been recruited to the army (3). This was the first statistic in recent years, which have led to public discussions over the media.

In the last five years, there was not any serious problem with ghost soldiers in the armed forces. Earlier, in the period of Safar Abiyev’s ministry (1995-2013), the media published information on similar cases. There were different reports that the sons of ministers did not serve in the army. Or their names were in military units, and they were not in service.
But it does not mean that the problem of ghost soldiers was solved. There is also no reliable source to confirm this fact. Lieutenant General Yashar Aydemirov, said that after Zakir Hasanov became minister, the sons of the ministers were called to serve in the army (1), but there is no evidence that these minister’s sons were called to the army. On the contrary, some minister’s sons who did not serve in the army before Zakir Hasanov were not called to military service after he came into power, despite still being eligible for the military service. The situation indeed became better after the previous minister left but the problem was not resolved, in particular, sons’ of those who are in the higher positions still enjoy their privilege (2).

The total number of military and civilian personnel within the defence system is determined by a Decision of the BiH Presidency on the Size, Structure and Locations of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina [1]. When speaking of a records system, Chapter IX of the Law on Service in AFBiH defines the personnel records management system in BiH MoD and AFBiH [2]. and it gave rise to the Rulebook on Personnel Records Management in the MoD and AFBiH, which defines in more detail all issues of records management, general personnel records, military records on-duty service, records of employees and personal files, records on military personnel not in service anymore, electronic database and maintenance, use and keeping of records of military personnel and civilians employed by BiH Ministry of Defence and BiH Armed Forces [1]. Data on the number and all other data necessary for human resources management are being updated daily, and there is an efficient system of personnel records management established to ensure full operability in the execution of given missions and tasks by commands and units of BiH AF. Public availability of personal data within the defence system is regulated by the provisions of the Law on Personal Data Protection and Plan of Personal Data Protection within the MoD and the AFBiH. Sector for personnel management in the MoD performs an annual analysis of personnel that contains all statistical personal data on the status and movement of military and civilian personnel during the year, and this analysis is available to certain bodies of legislative and executive government at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina [1]. When speaking of public availability of personal data, in a statistical sense they are publically available in the system of defence. For instance, in Chapter 8 of the Report on the Work of the BiH Ministry of Defence, there is information on personnel status stated. On the other hand, in publications of the MoD, there is information on certain data on personnel status, e.g. annual personnel analyses or in the last issue of bulletin titled Naša vojska [1]. Unfortunately, these statistics and their verification are completely entrusted to the above-explained procedures.
As the budget includes a table on the number of employees per institution, it is possible to know the total number of employees within the MoD and the AFBiH (for 2017 it was 10,011). However, it is not possible to know the exact number of civilian and military personnel [3].

Information on the total number of military and civilian personnel are given in the Decision of the BiH Presidency, it is publically available, while all other personal data are divided into certain categories carry a certain level of classification following the provisions of the Law on Personal Data Protection. The aforementioned decision defines the number of 10,000 military personnel, 1,000 of civilian personnel and 5,000 reserve personnel [1, 2, 3].

The MoD and the AFBiH have established clear procedures of recording employees on a daily bases, both in the system of human resources management and in the system of calculating of salaries and paid leave benefits, but also in the system of command and control, so in that context, there is no possibility of “non-existent soldiers and civilians” appearing in the defence system, i.e. it is not possible to have employees on the MoD payroll who are not really coming to work [1]. According to the Report on Budget Execution for 2018, there were 902 civilians and 8822 military personnel, with the planned number of personnel by the end of the year of 918 civilians and 9093 military (10011). The budget spent on salaries is 188’581’510 BAM [1]. There were no registered discrepancies in between the number of employees and the amount of the prescribed salaries [2, 3].

Index Mundi estimated the armed forces have 11,450 members in 2015 (1). According to the World Bank, Armed Force Personnel, the total for Burkina Faso is 11,000 in 2017 (2). There is no solid evidence that these numbers are accurate (3). According to the Burkina Faso Government/ Defence Anti-Corruption Index 2015, the Burkina Faso Army is made up of up to 5800-6000 people, plus 45,000 men and women registered for conscription (4).

The army of Burkina Faso is organized in military and gendarmerie regions and comprises of a regular army, the air force and the gendarmerie (1). As part of its policy, the government, in general, does not provide the public with access to its information (2). According to the Business Anti-Corruption Portal, and U.S. Department of State, the law does not provide for public access to government information (3), (4). Thus, the number of civilian and military personnel is not made available for public access by the Ministry of Defence.

There are a serious issue with ghost soldiers within the rank and file of the Burkina Faso military partly as a result of the crises in September 2017 (1), (2), (3), (4).

The official website of the Military of Defence does not carry details of the number of personnel. However, some other sources provide information on the number of civilian and military personnel that military and security institutions have [2], although it is not certain that these sources are accurate.

In fact, the number of civilian and military personnel is not accurately known or officially collected. Independent assessments vary considerably in their estimates of the number of armed forces personnel. For example, the World Bank estimates that, as of 2016, there were 23,400 armed forces personnel in Cameroon, while a November 2016 report by the International Crisis Group noted that “Cameroon now has around 8,500 troops in the Far North region – a seventh of its defence forces’ manpower” [4], which would put the estimated number of military personnel at around 60,000. Meanwhile, Global Fire Power (GFP) posits the number of Cameroon active available personnel to be 14,500, not including civilians [1]. No other recent independent estimates of the number of civilian defence personnel could be found.

Globalsecurity.org states that “As of 2000 the Cameroonian armed forces were reported to have a total of about 28,000 men including 14,000 for the Army, 1,500 for the Air Force, 1600 for the navy and gendarmerie 1100. By 2016, IISS was reporting a total of about 23,200 men including 12,500 for the Army, 400 for the Air Force, 1,300 for the navy and gendarmerie 9,000. By some estimates, Cameroon’s’ military numbered as many as 60,000 troops by 2015” [1].

The World Bank states that by 2015, the Cameroonian military had 23,400 personnel [2]. No details have been provided from 2016-2018 and the website of the Presidency that carries information on military issues does not present this information. These figures are subject to change as the government recruits almost on a yearly basis. With the advent of Boko Haram and the Anglophone crisis, there has been intake into the military to address these.

In 2013, the Ministry of Finance removed 12 members of the Ministry of Defence, ghost workers who were on the pay role of this ministry [1].

According to the Cameroon Post (July 2017 and April 2018), other examples of ghost workers were of major concern to the Cameroon government and there were discussions over recent campaigns to rid the civil service of ghost workers, though defence establishments were not specifically mentioned [2] [3].

The total number of military and civilian personnel is not updated each year, and the statistics are somewhat unreliable. Though there is no established procedure for disclosing or verifying statistics on the number of personnel, the 2016-2020 Military Programming Act (LPM) and the 2016-2020 Internal Security Programming Act (LPSI) made public the number of civilian and military personnel in the Armed Forces and police in 2016. The LPM 2016-2020, though reported widely by the Ivorian media, is not available on the MoD website, as demonstrated by a search in its publications and documentation tabs (1).

As per Law No. 2016-09 (Loi 2016-09 Portant Programmation des Forces de Sécurité Intérieure pour les Années, LPSI 2016-2020), published in the Official Journal on March 17, 2016, the number of national security personnel in 2016 amounted to:
– Police Nationale (16,953).
– Eaux et Forêts (3,055).
– Direction Générale des Affaires Maritimes et Portuaires (DGAMP) (739).
– Direction Générale des Douanes (4,375) (2).

Domestic and international media, in turn, have been updating the statistics for personnel as the number evolves according to LPM and LPSI requirements. According to the website of Connection Ivoirienne (April 22, 2016), the total number of military personnel in 2016 amounted to 41,515 (3). An update on the LPM 2016-2020 published by Jeune Afrique (February 23, 2018), put the total number of personnel in the Armed Forces as of 2018 at 41,620 (4). “The Military Planning Act provides for a reduction to 40,000 men from 41,620 which consists of 22,920 military and 18,700 gendarmes” (4). In a previous article from December 17, 2017, Jeune Afrique had provided the same number for the total number of military and police personnel: 41,620 (5). The article states, “an important military programming law for the years 2016 to 2020 has been adopted by the Ivorian government. The numbers of the armed forces (La Grande Muette) should be reduced to 40,000 men against 41,620 currently, consisting of 22,920 military and of 18,700 gendarmes” (5). As of November 2, 2018, in an interview with Minister of Defence Hamed Bakayoko published on the government website, a total of 3,157 soldiers had agreed to early retirement (991 in 2017 and 2,166 in 2018) (6):

“The mid-term review is positive in many ways. First, because this Act [LPM] has created a new and unique chain of command. In addition, an order for the enforcement of disciplinary sanctions, such as write-offs, has been signed and executed. Then, two voluntary departure operations resulted in the withdrawal of 3,157 soldiers (991 in 2017 and 2,166 in 2018). A Military Support and Retraining Office has been set up to help starters better integrate into their new professional and social life…” (6)

It is difficult to find a government source who has an accurate number of personnel employed by the MoD.

The MoD does not regularly publish or update the statistics of its military and civilian personnel, as shown in 38A. The absence of such information in open sources points to a low level of transparency.
Ivorian and international media have widely reported about the Military Planning Act (LPM 2016-2020) and referred to the aggregate number of soldiers in the armed forces. But the LPM itself, though adopted and approved in 2016, is not available on the MoD website (1). The full version of the LPM appears not to have been uploaded by the Official Journal.

Still, the personnel statistics for the police forces was disclosed by Law No. 2016-09 (Loi 2016-09 Portant Programmation des Forces de Sécurité Intérieure pour les Années, LPSI 2016-2020) on March 17, 2016, as broken down below:
– Police Nationale (16,953),
– Eaux et Forêts (3,055),
– Direction Générale des Affaires Maritimes et Portuaires (DGAMP) (739),
– Direction Générale des Douanes (4,375) (2).

It is difficult to get comprehensive and updated statistics on MoD personnel.

The confusion over the exact number of soldiers in the armed forces after the post-election crisis of 2010-2011, the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration schemes (DDR) and the soldier mutinies in Bouaké and other towns of January and May 2017. As a result, soldiers that are unaccounted for or do not fit government criteria remain an ambiguous issue.

In October 2015, Human Rights Watch (HRW) cited UN reports on the disarmament of 21,000 former combatants. It added that a total of 30,000 soldiers had benefited from reintegration schemes. However, HRW warned that the government disarmament and demobilization schemes until then had mostly benefitted the Forces Nouvelles (FN) loyal to President Ouattara and that only 13% of those disarmed were in fact combatants affiliated with Laurent Gbabgo (1).

According to Aline Leboeuf, a researcher at the Paris-based French Institute of International Relations (IFRI), the true dimension of the Ivorian Army, including former combatants from all sides, could number up to 50,000 if one included the thousands of so-called “associates” gravitating around military units (2). Leboeuf wrote:

“For a French adviser, the Ivorian army is largely a “social peace army”. It was composed of 23,000 registered men in 2014, to whom the government paid a salary so that they do not end up at roadblocks. Another adviser explained to me that the budget of the Ivorian army planned to feed a total of 25,000 men but that in fact, it fed 50,000 because about 30,000 associates gravitated around mixed units…” (2).

AFP reported on May 22, 2017, that former rebel soldiers who had been demobilized in the former rebel stronghold town of Bouaké were demanding the same early retirement benefits (EUR 18,000) offered by the government to the soldiers who had staged mutinies at their barracks in January 2017. The movement of these non-recognized demobilized soldiers was estimated at around 6,000 (3). Given the fact that the DDR schemes may not have captured all the former combatants in its statistics, it is likely that Côte d’Ivoire has military personnel that is unaccounted for.

Many sources (mostly non-Egyptian) such as Global Firepower and Global Security have estimated the number of military personnel (1), (2), there is no official and accessible data that includes such information. According to interviews, there are no official numbers of the numbers of military and civil personnel. the number is vague and only estimations (3), (4), (5).

All the estimates of the numbers of military personnel come from unofficial sources as demonstrated in 38A. After researching all official defence and statistics portals, it does not seem to be officially published, to the best of my knowledge there is no obligation in the law to publish these data (1), (2).

According to our sources, there are some cases of corruption where employees within the military are ghost soldiers (1), (2), (3). Another source confirms the existence of ghost soldiers at a very senior level in limited numbers (1). For example, a senior officer registers a few names as soldiers under his authority while they are not currently working.

The number of military personnel is made public by the Defence Forces, and updated on an irregular basis. For example, the data could be mentioned in a strategy and the press release that is published along with it, in a report about conscription, or in a report about Estonia’s defence capabilities, [1] for example, in the report on conscripts (“Kaitseväekohustuse täitmisest”, available only in Estonian; indicator “Tegevväelased”). [2] The number of the staff at the Ministry of Defence and other ministry-related institutions is also irregularly published: for example, in “Kaitseministeeriumi valitsemisala konsolideeritud majandusaasta aruanne” (“The consolidated financial report of the institutions under the Ministry of Defence”). [4] There is no policy on when and where it must be published or updated. Even when it is published, the data about the military and civilian personnel is not complete, but often only includes a figure that the Defence Forces would like to achieve. [3]

The number of civilian and military personnel is not disaggregated by rank bracket, but rather presented in an aggregate form. [1] Even then, often not all the personnel is included. Sometimes only the number of conscripts, [5] sometimes a number of personnel in one unit is published. The publishing of the numbers is not systematic nor is it clear when and how the data is published. [3]
Moreover, the aggregated number of military personnel in the Defence Forces is publicly available in some reports (e.g. “Kaitseväekohustuse täitmisest”). [2] The number of staff in the Ministry of Defence and other ministry-related institutions is more or less regularly available in “Avaliku teenistuse aastaraamat” (“The Annual Book of the Public Sector”) [4] and irregularly in some volumes of “Kaitseministeeriumi valitsemisala konsolideeritud majandusaasta aruanne” (“The consolidated financial report of the institutions under the Ministry of Defence”). [6]

As explained by a former flag officer, in Estonia, the problem is the opposite. [1] There are more servicemen in the reserve than in the official structures. Around 6,000 servicemen with conscripts serve in the peacetime structure. In wartime, this number could go up to 40,000, because of the people in the reserves. The Defence League consists of volunteers all over Estonia. [2]

The exact number of Ministry of Defence civilian staff is publicly available and is updated quarterly, including on the gender dimension (i.e. 537 in 4th quarter of 2017, female 258, male 279) [1, 2,]. According to the government reviewer, the most recent number of appointed civilians at the MOD civilian office is 531. This number can be found through the obligation defined in Decree #219, On Requesting Public Information in Electronic Form and Publishing It Proactively [2].

In relation to the military personnel number, the Law On the State Secrets [3], the Decree #507 On the Adoption of Normative Acts related to the State Secrecy Law [4], and the adopted list of Secret Information defines that the number of personnel in military forces is a state secret (Article 10.L). According to the Constitution [5] (Article 70.4), the parliament adopts annually the maximum number (e.g. the Decree adopted in 2018 says ‘no more than 37 000 person) of military forces [6, 7, 8, 9]. Therefore, the exact number of Military personnel is not known, but the approximate one.

Detailed and comprehensive information on the number of civilian personnel is publicly available on the website of the MoD and is updated quarterly. The MoD also provides data broken down by gender [1]. Due to prohibition by ‘state secrecy’ legislation [2], the number of military personnel is not made public. The structure of the military composition is publicly available on the websites [3].

The Ministry of Defence publishes and updates information about staff personnel, including heads of administrations, deputies, heads of the departments, heads of the services, accountants, auditors, inspectors, officers, military representatives and their staff, advisors, attachés of defence, services attachés, as well as the number of persons employed by labour and administrative agreements [3], and makes public the information on numbers of civilian personnel which is released by the national statistics office [4]. The total number at the end of 2018 of civilian personnel was 542 [1].

According to the government reviewer, the information on the total number of military servicemen, according to the Resolution # 507 of the Government of Georgia, the number of personnel of the Defense Forces is a state secret. Some category of information will be published in the curve. In particular:
• Annually for persons invited to compulsory military service and contracted military service;
• Percentage of employees in gender-based managerial positions according to employment, career advancement, professional development, sending to training courses and other criteria;
• On international missions.

All military personnel are enlisted, on active duty, and are serving. There is no indication or doubt of the existence of ghost soldiers. The numbers of military personnel are available to the Group of Confidence [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].

The MOD does not provide an official number of military personnel employed. Despite providing some information about the activities of the Ghanaian military personnel, (i.e. the number of personnel trained, the percentage of personnel deployed in peacekeeping operations, etc.) the number is not stated in the MOD’s budget.

According to the latest Global Firepower Report, Ghana has 13,500 military personnel (1), the slightly outdated data of the International Institute for Strategic Studies shows Ghana having 15,500 military personnel (2).

However, the number of civilians employed by the MOD is provided in the Annual Performance Report, published by the Ghana Civil Service. According to the last report available (2017), there are 69 civil servants currently working for the MOD (3). The report provides information on the sex and age distribution of the employees, as well as the sex distribution of promotions and postings.

Information on the number of military personnel is not made publicly available. Information on the number of civilian personnel is published on the Ghana Civil Service Annual Performance Report (1).

Although the procedure for paying salaries is laid out and headcounts are routinely done; in the past year amongst the military (1), there have been cases where salaries, or pension payments of deceased personnel, were (and possibly still are) being paid and siphoned into private pockets rather than the deceased’s family (1), (2).

Although the MOD and Armed Forces have not been mentioned in the reports denouncing unearned salaries, these are common in Ghana’s public institutions; episodes of unearned salaries for GhC505 million across different MDAs were denounced by the Parliamentary Public Account Committee in November 2017 (3); also, in April 2017 the Finance Ministry declared the removal of 27,000 ghost names from the national payroll system. The issue had also been tackled by the previous Mahama administration by introducing a new e-payment system (4) while the current administration is considering the option of outsourcing the national payroll system (5).

There is no publicly available information [1, 2]. Beyond the legal restrictions linked to the 2011 modification of the CXIII Law on National Defence and the Hungarian Army there further transparency problems with the publicly (not) available numbers [1, 2, 3].

The Ministry of Defence (MoD) publishes aggregate numbers linked to the description of the state budget or information provided to NATO and other international organisations [1]. Previously detailed information is not available, due to legal restrictions [2]. However, this data cannot be verified, and several experts have questioned its accuracy [3]. The MoD is unable to deal with these disputes. According to source 7, he saw the retrospective modification of data the year following when it was submitted to NATO [4] which lead to questions about the publicly available information.

There is not enough information to score this indicator. The existence or absence of ghost soldiers could not be confirmed or excluded [1].

The total number of civilian and army personnel is not readily available, owing to the absence of official records. Iraq post-2003 has not shown adeptness in the realm of data collecting which similarly applies to the digitization of facts/info, which means that not a single figure is relied upon by all state ministries. Public access is another area of concern connected to the low-quality data collation efforts and databases that the public can access.

The local paper (1) placed the number of civilian personnel a little above 2 million at “2, 905, 226”, adding that by 2018, 13, 470 employees will be retired and salaries will also be reduced, according to IMF imposed conditions. A slightly older source (2) quoting the official Ministry of Planning Statistics Bureau (the ministry responsible for keeping official employment tallies), places the figure of civilian staff at 6 million, all of whom are said to be registered under the state social welfare system.

As for military personnel, relevant statistics are equally difficult to come by. The total number of PMF Hashd recruits are the most widely discussed in the local and international press. Published figures, while are not officially recorded, range between 100, 000 to 140, 000 fighters (3) [260] who, another analyst told Transparency (4) “will vary in their relationship with various political actors, Iran and with each other”. Some of these brigades are also known to have recruited children into their field of operations (5) The total figure of PMF child recruits is not officially documented. One source places the total number of active military personnel at 168 000 and reserve personnel at 150 000 (6).

There are no official statistics that give the true figures of he MoD personnel.

While Abadi intensified Security Sector Reforms in response to the ‘ghost soldier’ scandal in which 50 thousand named MoD employees were found not to exist, his campaign has yielded few visible results, despite having labelled 2016, “the year of eliminating corruption” (1). Local news commentary is replete with coverage in which anonymous sources discuss the potential presence of ‘ghost soldiers’ in the Popular Mobilization Units institution. COI head, Hassan al Yasiri, told Reuters (2) corruption “had been reduced by closer scrutiny of the defence ministry”, but admitted that more work is needed. While there have been increased talks of biometric registration systems being implemented, there is no evidence to suggest this has happened (3). Another military source (4) verified that no e-registration system had either been purchased or installed. The multiplication of armed forces beneath the PMF umbrella and choice of cash payments threatens to fuel the existence of ghost soldiers (5).

The number of civilian and military personnel is updated annually [1]. There are established processes for publishing and verifying statistics on the composition of the armed forces. These statistics can be gleaned from the finance department of the army, where there are records of the monthly payments of personnel, or from media outlets through interviews of senior officials, but there is no transparency declaring numbers to the public [2].

The number of armed forces is not made public by the MoD, rather through media outlets that interview senior officials or commanders [1]. They usually publish it on the anniversary of the Arab Jordanian Hashimite Army.

There is no evidence that there are ghost soldiers in Jordan [1,23].

Based on the Kosovo Government’s Regulation No. 07/2019 on Internal Organisation and Settlement of Job Positions in the Ministry of Development, the Sector for Salaries Compensations and Personnel Requests that operates within the Department on Personnel Policies and Recruitment is responsible for drafting annual plans regarding personnel numbers and salary costs [1]. The number of personnel is therefore updated on annual basis in the Ministry of Defence annual report [2], which is published by the Ministry of Defence on its website [3].

The Ministry of Defence publishes an Annual Report to make available the number of civilian and military personnel within the Ministry of Defence and the Kosovo Security Forces [1]. However, this data are not detailed or divided into brackets. Only gender representation is outlined [1].
This organisational structure of the Ministry of Defence is available on the websites of the Ministry of Defence [2] and the Government [3]. It contains a summarised table with superficial information on the civilian and military personnel under the management of the Minister and General Secretary of Defence, and the Commander of the Security Forces [2, 3].

Ghost soldiers have not been an issue for the Ministry of Defence or the Kosovo Security Forces [1]. According to a senior representative of the Kosovo Government, the Security Forces have not been faced with this issue of ghost soldiers in the last five years [1].

The number of military and civilian employees is not updated every year and it is not presented in a straightforward manner. The Government release a statistical, which used to come out once a year but has not come out since 2015, which includes the total number of all Government employees (1). The Finance Ministry, on the other hand, states the number of jobs in each ministry, but it does not say whether or not these jobs are full-time posts. That said, using these two figures, observers can produce a reliable estimate for the number of military and civilian personnel (2).

These numbers are generally accurate and considered to be reflective of reality as the Government has no real reason to lie here, activists say (1, 2 and 3).

The Defence Ministry and the bodies that monitor its work do not provide a number for the civilian and military personnel to the public. They provide a total figure to the Finance Ministry and other agencies that publish it, without distinction between military and civilian employees. This also applies to the police and the KNG (1-5).

The Kuwaiti military is small and almost all Kuwaiti officials openly acknowledge this, and it has always been inactive, even during the country’s invasion by Iraq in the 1990s, so ghost soldiers have never been an issue, officials and analysts say (1, 2, 3 and 4).

Information on the number of civilian and military personnel is transparent and constantly updated. The State Defence Concept (2016) outlines the approximate number of soldiers – 6,500 professional soldiers, 8,000 National guardsmen and 3,000 rerserve soldiers. [1] While the National Armed forces publishes the number of hired and retired militaries yearly online, [2] there is no concrete number (with precision down to one person) of active soldiers available online; this, however, does not give ground to question that the respective institutions have the information. [3]
The Ministry of Defence publishes concrete numbers of its employees online, and the contact information of the persons sitting in senior positions. [4]

Information on the number of civilian and military personnel is transparent and constantly updated. The State Defence Concept (2016) outlines the approximate number of soldiers – 6,500 professional soldiers, 8,000 National guardsmen and 3,000 rerserve soldiers. [1] While the National Armed forces publishes the number of hired and retired militaries yearly online, [2] there is no concrete number (with precision down to one person) of active soldiers available online; this, however, does not give ground to question that the respective institutions have the information. [3]
The Ministry of Defence publishes concrete numbers of its employees online, and the contact information of the persons sitting in senior positions. [4]

There have been no public reports on ghost soldiers in the last five years (except the frequency of show-up and the level of training of members of National Guard [1]) and the State Audit Office completely outrules the existence of such soldiers (it has constant live access to the accounting system of the Ministry of Defence). [2]

Numbers of civilian and military personnel at the Ministry of Defence and in the LAF are not accurate as they vary in different sources. The figures on the website are an estimation of the approximate number of active military personnel. The Ministry of Defence does not offer figures for the total number of active military personnel (1). Global Firepower has an estimate of 75,000 (2) while IISS reported 60,000 in 2017 (3). During a panel discussion at Carnegie Middle East Center’s second annual conference in December 2017, the PM stated that the LAF has 82,000 military personnel (4).

The LAF does not publish official figures on the number of civilian and military personnel (1).

There is no evidence of ghost soldiers being a problem within the LAF. A source denied knowledge of any previous incidents with ghost soldiers (1). The metrics of manpower in Lebanon are a recurring topic of discussion within the LAF Command. According to senior LAF officers – both active and retired – this has not been a challenge the LAF and Lebanon have had to deal with (2).

The Ministry of Defence publishes the number of civilian and military personnel on a yearly rather than quarterly basis since 2005 [1]. However, the last time this list was updated was April 2018. In addition, the structure of armed forces and a total threshold limit of troops can be found on the military’s website. The information provided dates back to 2015 [2]. According to the government reviewer, every year the threshold of civilian and military personnel is determined by law and is reviewed twice a year.

Information on the number of civilian and military personnel is publicly available on the website of the Ministry of Defence [1]. It is broken down by rank as well [2].

Based on media coverage, desk research and confidential interviews, the military does not seem to have ghost soldiers [1,2,3,4,5].

The lack of transparency and the disorder within the security forces mean that the Malian authorities are not even sure of the exact number of security personnel employed by the state. In 2016, Albrecht Conze, head of the EUCAP Sahel/Mali mission, told Malian journalists that no Malian officials had been able to provide him or his organisation with reliable data relating to how many people are employed in the police, the gendarmerie or the national guard.² The precise number of people employed in the security forces is still unknown as of June 2018.⁸ In 2017, a RAND report commented that “personnel services, such as human resources and financial management, are also areas of particular difficulty for the FAMa: There is no accurate total of the number of service members in the FAMa, creating a serious problem of “ghost soldiers”, or soldiers who are on the personnel rolls but are not showing up for duty”.⁷
According to estimates from a 2013 report by the French Senate, the Malian army is composed of fewer than 7,000 men. 90% of those soldiers are from the southern part of the country, limiting its ability to fight in the north. The Air Force has 1,000 soldiers as well as 4 helicopters (MI24), 3 MIG21s (essentially useless) and 15 other planes (troop transport aircraft, reconnaissance plane).³ The National Guard consists of 3,500 troops; among them, 2,000 are from the southern part of the country.³ Troops established in the north are mainly northerners (Tuareg and Arab populations).³ Another estimate of the size of the armed forces pre-crisis puts the number of security personnel, including government-supporting paramilitaries, at above 20,000.⁶ For context, the 2006 SIPRI study provides the following estimates: “The total size of the armed forces is about 7,350, including 400 personnel in the air force and 50 navy personnel. The security forces total 4,800, including 1,800 gendarmes and 2,000 republican guards”.⁴ The army announced in May 2017 that it would recruit an additional 5,000 personnel during the course of 2017, as part of the wider military reform (LOPM).⁵
By contrast, the number of civilian personnel working for the Malian state is officially known and appears to be updated every year. For instance, in September 2017, the government declared that there were 41,911 active civil servants, of which 14,758 were female.¹ The government provided a further breakdown of the figure, showing that there were:
– 15,707 Category A employees, 48% of the total
– 13,102 Category B2 employees, 26% of the total
– 6,348 Category B1 employees, 15% of the total
– 6,754 Category C employees, 11% of the total¹
However, it is not clear whether these numbers include civilian personnel working within the Ministry of Defence or other security-focused organisations.

The Ministry of Defence and the Malian armed forces are not in a position to release credible data on the number of personnel in their ranks because they themselves do not have it (see 38A). The only publicly available data are estimates from third-party organisations such as the French Senate. In 2017, a RAND report commented that “personnel services, such as human resources and financial management, are also areas of particular difficulty for the FAMa: There is no accurate total of the number of service members in the FAMa, creating a serious problem of “ghost soldiers”, or soldiers who are on the personnel rolls but are not showing up for duty”.3 A defence attaché at a foreign embassy in Bamako said that the introduction of an electronic payments system would reveal how many soldiers each commander has under their authority.⁹ This would curb the opportunities for commanders to pocket the salaries of non-existent, deceased or retired soldiers and thus explains why many leaders within the armed forces do not embrace the idea of an electronic system.4
The army announced in May 2017 that it would recruit an additional 5,000 personnel during the course of 2017. This is part of the wider military reform (LOPM), which intends to recruit 10,000 personnel between 2015 and 2019.2 That same month, the army’s director of public relations made an announcement that indicates a nascent and promising move towards transparency in the defence sector. He revealed that the armed forces had received 60,136 applications to serve in the military and provided a regional breakdown: Gao: 2,018; Koulikoro: 10,685; Mopti: 2,860; Ségou: 4,807; Sikasso: 7,656; Kayes: 2,617; Bamako: 3,706 and Tombouctou: 131.1

The assessor found strong evidence that ghost soldiers have been a problem for the armed forces during the past five years. Given that there is no accurate record of the number of people in the armed forces, it is unclear how the authorities are able to ascertain the extent of the problem. 1
In 2017, the government called for judicial investigations after an internal review found that there were about 13,000 fictional employees on the state’s payroll.3 The minister of justice requested that the public prosecutor launch an inquiry into the diversion of bonuses and salary payments of dead soldiers.3 The embezzlement of public funds was estimated to have cost the state 30 billion CFA per year.3
A defence attaché at a foreign embassy in Bamako said that the introduction of an electronic payments system would reveal how many soldiers each commander has under their authority.4 This would curb the opportunities for commanders to pocket the salaries of non-existent, deceased or retired soldiers and thus explains why many leaders within the armed forces do not embrace the idea of an electronic system.4
In 2017, a RAND report commented that “personnel services, such as human resources and financial management, are also areas of particular difficulty for the FAMa: There is no accurate total of the number of service members in the FAMa, creating a serious problem of “ghost soldiers”, or soldiers who are on the personnel rolls but are not showing up for duty”.2

The number of civilian and military personnel is published in the annual reports of the Ministry of Defence. [1] However, statistical information about number of employees provided by the Ministry is not accurate, because it does not include some civilian personnel employed through short-term contracts. [2]

According to the MoD reviewer, the number of civilian and military personnel is updated on a monthly basis. There are electronic databases established separately for the employees of the Ministry of Defence and military personnel in MNE Armed Forces. Instructions for data entry, control and processing in the Central Personnel Registry (Att.nr 22) which regulates the procedure and actions in the process of data entry, control and corrections, in the  Article 16 – Data update and deadlines prescribes: “The legal administrator, independently or in cooperation with the control administrator, is obliged to collect data for the new employee and, within 8 days from the day of taking office or employment, process the data in database. Legal administrator, independently or in in cooperation with the control administrator, is obliged to enter any change in the personnel file, personnel service or personnel department and update the data in the database within 8 days.”
Central Personnel Registry of MoD Montenegro and Central Personnel Registry of Armed Forces of Montenegro are updated as follows:
–      On a daily basis: every change in relation to the previous day (change of personal data) as well as changes related to decisions on appointment, decisions on incomes, decisions on promotion, decisions on termination of service, decisions on dismissal, decisions on changing the category of persons etc.
–      On a daily basis: data from the database in order to issue certificates of employment and length of service
–      On a monthly basis: data from the database to create monthly reports
–      At the annual level: data from the database to create an annual report.
This information could not be verified.

Information on the number of civilian and military personnel in defence is publicly available in the annual reports of the Ministry of Defence. [1] Information is somewhat aggregated: at the and of 2018, the total number of employees was 1771, including 237 officers, 719 non-commissioned officers, 552 solders and 263 civilians. [1]

According to the MoD reviewer, these data are also published in the Strategic Defence Review of Montenegro which is a publicly available document.

Some sources believe that ghost solders used to be an issue in the past, but now it is rather the case with civilian personnel, who are employed on the basis of temporary contracts. [1] However, main media outlets reported no such practices in last 5 years. [2][3][4][5][6]

Due to the absence of a Ministry of Defence in its own right and to the secrecy surrounding the Moroccan armed forces, figures are not made directly available to the public by Moroccan authorities (1).

However, they are available indirectly through publications such as the International Institute for Strategic Studies’ (IISS) Military Balance. These figures are updated once a year (2).

The score selected is due to the frequency of the update, and the absence of sources other than the Military Balance.

Due to the absence of a Ministry of Defence in its own right and to the secrecy surrounding the Moroccan armed forces, figures are not made directly available to the public by Moroccan authorities (1).

However, they are available indirectly through publications such as the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS)’s Military Balance. These figures are disaggregated by role bracket (2).

Due to the level of disaggregation, the fact that the Ministry of Defence does not make these figures directly available and the absence of sources other than the Military Balance, the selected score applies.

No evidence of ghost soldiers over the past 5 years was found in the foreign or the local press(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9).
No evidence of ghost soldiers over the past 5 years was found in NGO reports (10)(11)(12).
Interviewees argued that the lack of overview of military personnel figures represents a risk of ghost soldiers, although they did not provide proof of actual ghost soldiers (13)(14).

Currently, the armed forces comprises of approximately 20,000 personnel and 7,000 Gendarmerie Nationale. However, an exact number is not publicly available. The number of civilian and military personnel is regularly updated, at least once a year, to establish recruitment provisions for the coming year (1). However, for 2018, the Assessor could not find exact numbers for FAN, Gendarmerie Nationale or Garde Nationale on official websites. In 2011, for comparison, the FAN comprised of approximately 12,000 personnel, the Gendarmerie Nationale included around 5,400 personnel, and the Garde Nationale was estimated to have 8,500 personnel (2). This type of information is often available through third parties such as DCAF, ICG or Global Firepower reports. However, there are no regularly updated figures available from official sources, such as the Ministry of Defence. This may be due to government capacity constraints, rather than national security concerns.

Limited information on the number of civilian and military personnel is made publicly available by the Ministry of Defence. However, the figures detailed here were obtained during official interviews (1). The Assessor did not manage to find other recent information regarding the number of military and civil personnel. For 2018, for instance, the Assessor could not find figures for FAN, Gendarmerie Nationale, or Garde Nationale on official websites. 

Over the last three years, military and local media investigations have revealed no issues connected to ghost soldiers (1). Given the relatively small size of the army, a large-scale problem of this nature does not seem likely. However, there is a possibility that ghost soldiers could exist as a result of administrative constraints rather than corruption within the FAN. If this is the case, their numbers are likely to be very small.

The Integrated Payroll and Personnel Information System (IPPIS) is an Information Communications Technology (ICT) project initiated by the Nigerian government to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of payroll administration for its Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) (1). This has been an attempt to get all MDAs into a computerized payroll system. The government intends to bring the payroll of the military within the IPPIS. September 2017 was the deadline to fully bring the payroll of the military into the IPPIS (2). This drive by the government suggests that there are around 200,000 military personnel in the armed forces. This process will involve a verification process which should weed out ghost soldiers and establish a more accurate figure for serving personnel, but the problem of ghost workers is still an issue. Many MDAs have been integrated into the payroll system, including the police, Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC), the immigration, prison and the military (2). However, not all MDAs are part of the system. A lack of infrastructure and inaccurate information being supplied by civil servants are a part of the challenges facing the policy.

The Integrated Payroll and Personnel Information System (IPPIS) is currently ongoing. The payroll system has identified several ghost soldiers. There are figures for the total number of armed forces personnel at 200,000 (1). However, this figure is likely to be revised following the verification process before the transfer to the integrated payroll system (2). Again, not all MDAs are part of the system. A lack of infrastructure and inaccurate information being supplied by civil servants are part of the challenges facing the policy (3).

There have been credible reports over the last five years of a large number of ghost soldiers (1), (2). The Integrated Payroll and Personnel Information System (IPPIS) is currently computerizing the payroll system, which has identified several ghost soldiers. This will involve a verification process which should eliminate ghost soldiers, and establish a more accurate figure for serving personnel. But the problem of ghost workers is still an issue, and not all MDAs are part of the system. A lack of infrastructure and inaccurate information being supplied by civil servants are parts of the challenges facing the policy (3), (4).

The number of civilian and military personnel is stated in the White Paper on Defence [1]. The figures highlight the number, rank, gender and ethnicity of staff over the period 2006-2012. In the 2016 Annual Report of Employees in the Public Sector, the number of personnel in the Ministry of Defence (including the Army of the North Macedonia), was divided up between Ministry of Defence staff, civil servants and army staff [2]. The June 2018 Strategic Defence Review states that the current staffing of the Army (with 6811 employees) will remain around 6,800 active personnel until 2028. The Review also notes that number of Ministry of Defence personnel will be reduced from around 1,000 to between 650-700 by 2028, and this number will include a mixture of civilian and military employees [3].

The White Book of Defence [1] is available on the official web page of the MoD. The Annual Report on the Registry of Employees in the Public Sector [2] is posted on the official web page of the Ministry of Information, Society & Administration, and is updated annually, according to the Law on Employees in the Public Sector. Information on the number of civilian and military personnel, therefore, is made available publicly and is disaggregated by rank bracket.
Also the SDR provides the current and the projected manning of the ARM and the administrative servants.

There are no media or other reports (including official audits) which note the issue of ghost soldiers in the Army.

The number of civilian and military personnel is not known and is not officially collected. Military personnel is estimated at 61,800, with 57,300 active and 4,500 on reserve (1). No statistics were found indicating the distribution of civilian and military personnel on government or international websites regarding Oman (2), (3), (4). Neither was statistical information regarding the distribution of military and civilian defence personnel found on international websites containing information about Oman such as the CIA or Stockholm International Peace Research Institute websites (5), (6). According to a senior Omani army officer, the number of personnel usually varies from year to year and therefore is inaccurate (7), (8).

According to a senior military officer within the Omani army, the number of personnel is published in the military magazine, Jound, which is publicly available (1). However, this source argues that these numbers are not certain as they usually vary from one year to another, and therefore we can not give an accurate number (2), (3).

There has not been any case of ghost soldiers in the last ten years in the sultan’s Omani army (1), (2).

The number of civilian and military personnel is updated every few years, and therefore, the numbers are not accurate. However, the number could be vague and does not reflect reality (1), (2).

Aggregated or summarised information on the number of civilian and military personnel is made available publicly by the MoF, and the prime minister’s office (1). These numbers are part of the annual budget, which is usually available. According to Alaa Altartir, reports that provide information about the personnel and their numbers and categories are not available (2).

Following the 2005 institutionalization of bank-accounts for every soldier and employee within the PA, issues with ghost soldiers have disappeared (1), (2), (3).

Data on the actual number of soldiers are transferred quarterly to the central open data repository dane.gov.pl. They include number of proffesional soldiers, soldiers of territorial defence, men and women etc. [1].

No data on civilian personnel are transferred to the open data system. They are published in annual editions of Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland. [2]

Information on the size of the army is available both on the website of the Ministry of National Defence and in the media [1, 2]. However, it is not possible to find information disaggregated by rank.

The military has not a problem with ghost soldiers in the last five years. Personnel salaries and allowances are established, published and managed by the MoND’s Department for Human Resources, which is separate from the chain of command [1, 2].

Information available about the numbers of civilian and military personnel within the defence sector is not consistent. The Government does not make this information publicly available, and most of the numbers available in both Arabic and English are based on speculation rather than on reliable information. [1] For example, IISS states that there are 11,800 personnel within the armed forces; 8,500 in the army, 1,500 in the Air Force, and 1,800 in the navy. [2] There are, however, grave discrepancies between numbers, and inaccuracy in reporting due to the lack of official data. The number of civilian and military personnel is not accurately known or officially collected. The number is not accurate as there is nationalization and recruitment of foreigners (Yemeni) to serve in the armed forces, but they are not counted. [3,4]

There is no transparency relating to the number of civilians and military personnel. There are no official numbers available through the Government, and all matters concerning the defence sector are treated as confidential state secrets. [1] As previously explained, information about numbers is very inconsistent, and none of it has been obtained through official means. [2,3]

There have not been any ghost soldiers for the last 10 years at least [1,2].

According to our sources, the strength of the Saudi army is unknown, even to soldiers and many senior officers. There is no public data available. However, senior sources suggest that the number is more than 220 thousand employees (1), (2).

According to our sources, there are no clear and accurate numbers of soldiers. Although one of the sources has access to the numbers of soldiers, they argue that there are other agencies that they do not have access to there numbers, such as the royal guards (1), (2). There have been many estimations regarding the number of military and civilian personnel in Saudi Arabia; however, these are not recent. For example, GlobalSecurity.org estimated that in 2015, Saudi Arabia had 227,000 active-duty personnel, including 75,000 in the army; 20,000 in the air force; 16,000 for air defence; and 15,500 in the navy. It also estimated 100,000 personnel in the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG) (3). As mentioned above, these numbers are neither official nor recent. The website of Saudi Arabian Military Industries, a military industry company formed in May 2017, states that the organization aims to create 40,000 direct jobs in the industry by 2030, though no further details are mentioned about the nature of these positions (4).

According to our sources, ghost soldiers are not a serious issue within the MoD in general, but they have been in the past (before 2010). With the current financial and payroll system, the ghost soldiers issue has ended. However, there is still no information about other agencies under the direct supervision of the royal palace and internal security (1), (2). Several allegations surrounding the use of ghost soldiers in the military have been reported on in the media and by government sources recently. Notably, in November 2017, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman arrested the commander of the SANG, Miteb bin Abdullah, in a wide-ranging anti-corruption purge. Charges against Miteb included awarding fake defence contracts to his firms, and hiring ghost employees. Miteb later paid a USD 1 billion settlement relating to these charges (3). Ghost employees are known to be an issue in Saudi ministries and government departments (4). Mohammed bin Salman has identified tackling corruption and rooting out inefficiencies in government and bureaucracy as one of the main cornerstones of his Vision 2030 reform program (5), (6).

Since the number of civilian and military personnel is confidential in Serbia, the score on accuracy and frequency of updating this information cannot be given.

A bylaw which regulates the number of MoD and SAF members is confidential [1]. The media occasionally publish estimations; estimates range from 28,000 to 40,000 military personnel [2, 3].

There is no evidence or reports in the media on the existence of ghost soldiers in the preceding period. No cases, were found on the official webpage of the Military Security Agency either [1].

According to our sources, there is not an accurate figure on the number of the civilian and military employees. Sometimes unofficial reports (from the Governmnet) mention these figures, but they are merely speculations without credible sources. (1,2,3). The website of the Ministry of Defence does not mention the number of civilian and military personnel (4). However, the 2018 Budget of the Ministry of Defence provides information regarding the number of civilian personnel, the number of personnel who received a promotion, and the number of new hires (5). Reports also provide information about the number of military personnel (6).

According to our sources, there is a formal announcement of abstract figures on the number of specific items such as new recruits and promotions, but the full number of personnel is not detailed (2,3) The 2018 Budget of the Ministry of Defence provides information regarding the number of civilian personnel, the number of personnel who received a promotion, and the number of new hires (1). The Ministry of Defence declares annually the number of recruits and the number of conscripts .

According to our sources, there are no ghost soldiers in the Tunisian army and there have not been any investigations or rumours surrounding this issue in the past ten years (1,2). There is no evidence of the existence of ghost employees in the Ministry of Defence. No cases regarding ghost soldiers have been reported in the media, and the interviewee confirmed that he has no knowledge of the existence of ghost employees in the Ministry of Defence. (3) Furthermore, the payment system is centralised and computerised which significantly reduces the risk of the existence of such ghost soldiers. The salary and wages payment system is very strict and it is subject to severe controls from the Ministry of Finance and the National Center of Information technologies (CNI). (4)

There is a law which sets the maximum number of personnel of the Armed Forces of Ukraine [1] and also the MoD White book which provides the general number of civilian and military personnel (in thousands) [2]. The precise number can be found in the MoD Budget request [3]. For instance, there were 167,550 non-conscript AFU servicemen, 20,709 conscripts and 35,917 public officers in 2017 [3]. These numbers are updated annually, and the MoD regularly publishes updates on its HR policy [4, 5].

The MoD budget request provides the general numbers of AFU servicemen and MoD officers. It is broken down into four categories: non-conscript AFU servicemen, conscripts, public servants on servicemen positions and public servants [1]. The White Book also provides the number of AFU contract officers [2]. This means the information is not disaggregated by rank. Moreover, the number of civilian and military personnel can be obtained through citizen requests to the MoD, according to the open public access to information law

There is not enough evidence to score this indicator. A source working on ATO topics stated that “ghost soldiers” were an issue for the AFU in the form of some tactical level positions being filled in by people not conducting the corresponding activities, while the salary was withdrawn monthly and channelled to the black cash of the unit [1]. However, another interviewee could not mention any cases in recent years [2]. At the same time, there is a lack of evidence in the press as well as in official statements.

According to the annual IISS Military Balance, the number of soldiers employed is 63,000 (44,000 Army, 2,500 Navy, and 4,500 Presidential Guards) (1). However, research revealed that information available about the number of civilian and military personnel within the defence sector is inconsistent. The official website of the UAE government does not make this information publicly available (2).

There is no transparency at all about the number of civilian and military personnel that are employed. There are no official numbers available through the government, and most matters related to the defence sector are treated as confidential. As previously explained, information about numbers is available via non-official means, such as IISS Military Balance, about the number of civilian and military personnel within the defence sector (1), (2), (3).

There are no ghost soldiers in the UAE armed forces. There is no evidence of ghost soldier; the institutional mechanism of financial auditing is strict and does not allow for this to happen (1), (2).

Country Sort by Country 38a. Accuracy Sort By Subindicator 38b. Transparency Sort By Subindicator 38c. Ghost soldiers Sort By Subindicator
Albania 50 / 100 25 / 100 100 / 100
Algeria 0 / 100 0 / 100 100 / 100
Angola 0 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Armenia 25 / 100 25 / 100 100 / 100
Azerbaijan 0 / 100 0 / 100 100 / 100
Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 / 100 50 / 100 100 / 100
Burkina Faso 0 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Cameroon 0 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Cote d'Ivoire 25 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Egypt 0 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Estonia 50 / 100 50 / 100 100 / 100
Georgia 50 / 100 50 / 100 100 / 100
Ghana 0 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Hungary 0 / 100 50 / 100 NEI
Iraq 0 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Jordan 50 / 100 0 / 100 100 / 100
Kosovo 50 / 100 50 / 100 100 / 100
Kuwait 25 / 100 25 / 100 100 / 100
Latvia 50 / 100 50 / 100 100 / 100
Lebanon 0 / 100 0 / 100 100 / 100
Lithuania 50 / 100 100 / 100 100 / 100
Mali 0 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Montenegro 50 / 100 50 / 100 100 / 100
Morocco 0 / 100 0 / 100 100 / 100
Niger 0 / 100 0 / 100 100 / 100
Nigeria 0 / 100 25 / 100 0 / 100
North Macedonia 25 / 100 100 / 100 100 / 100
Oman 0 / 100 25 / 100 100 / 100
Palestine 25 / 100 50 / 100 100 / 100
Poland 25 / 100 50 / 100 100 / 100
Qatar 0 / 100 0 / 100 100 / 100
Saudi Arabia 0 / 100 0 / 100 0 / 100
Serbia 0 / 100 0 / 100 100 / 100
Tunisia 0 / 100 25 / 100 100 / 100
Ukraine 50 / 100 50 / 100 NEI
United Arab Emirates 0 / 100 0 / 100 100 / 100

With thanks for support from the UK Department for International Development and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs who have contributed to the Government Defence Integrity Index.

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