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Q39.

Are pay rates and allowances for civilian and military personnel openly published?

39a. Pay rates

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SCORE: 25/100

Assessor Explanation

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39b. Allowances

Score

SCORE: 25/100

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Pay rates for civilian and military personnel are determined by the Council of Ministers. The pay rates for the military personnel are set by the Decision of the Council of Ministers and therefore are made public. The first Decision was adopted in 2003 [1]. The current Decision was adopted in 2010. The Decision describes in detail, payment by rank and profession specialities within the armed forces [2].
The pay rates, for the civilian personnel in the MoD and the armed forces who are hired under the Law on Civil Servants [3], are defined following the Decision of Council of Ministers adopted in 2017 [4]. The documents defining the pay rates are open to the public and appear on the MoD website [5].

Civilian personnel are not entitled to receive allowances.
Various allowances paid to the military personnel for housing rent, alimentation, medical treatment, etc, are defined by the Council of Ministers [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. The documents defining the allowances paid to the military personnel for housing rent, alimentation, medical treatment, etc. are open to the public and appear in the MoD website [8].

No specific information on the pay rates could be found.

The 2006 Statute of Military Personnel provides some information on the remuneration of soldiers, but it is general and does not outline any specific rates. According to Art. 52, members of the armed forces are entitled to remuneration consisting of a salary, which is fixed according to rank, seniority in rank and service. The article also says that benefits are fixed by regulations. However, no reference to another regulation/law/order could be found in the statute, which could lead to an openly published table of pay rates (1). There also is the Code for Military Pensions, but it also does not provide any information on exact rates (4). Also, no information could be found in the military magazine (5).

Art. 52 also says that any general measure affecting the remuneration of civil servants shall be extended to military personnel. Yet, these measures are “subject to the necessary adjustments” (Art. 52). Presidential Decree No. 07-304 (2007) outlines the salary index grid and the compensation scheme for civil servants. It lists different categories and echelons of the enumerations for civil officers; no specific pay rates are given. The decree does not make any reference to the defence sector. It might be possible that it applies to civilians working in the defence sector, but there is no clear evidence of that (2). According to information from the Ministry of Finance on the evolution of the compensation system for civil servants, there has been no change in recent years (3), which could have likewise had an impact on the remuneration of the military personnel, according to Art. 52 mentioned above.

No specific information on allowances could be found during the research.

Art. 52 of the Statute of Military Personnel only says that allowances are related to the nature of the function performed and particular constraints, such as place of assignment and the risks associated with it (1). If a member of the armed forces is suspended for serious misconduct, pending a final decision on his case, he shall continue to receive his pay, but he should not receive the allowances inherent in the performance of his duties (2). Allowances and full salary are also paid for a period of twelve months when soldiers are preparing to return to civilian life (3). There is also the Code for Military Pensions, but it does not provide any information on exact rates (4). Furthermore, no information could be found in the military magazine (6).

The only other information with regards to benefits in the armed forces that could be found is from a newspaper report indicating that the Ministry of Defence had raised the values of loans for military personnel to acquire apartments in 2016 (5).

Pay scales for public servants, including the military, are approved by presidential decree and published in the official gazette. The last updated pay scales were published in June of 2017 (before that in 2014), including personnel of the armed forces, Ministry of Interior, and domestic and external intelligence services [1]. Salary scales include brackets for all ranks. No indications are provided on how individual pay is calculated, and allowances are listed in summary form for senior officials only.

Pay scales published in the official gazette include allowances only in summary form and for senior officials only (see 39A).

The overall payment system both for civilians and military personnel is regulated through the Law on State Officials Payment and a range of government decrees. Thus, the Law outlines the means and measures applied while calculating wages for civil and military positions depending on rungs, classes, etc. Article 5 of the law provides that the wages of state officials are approved in the yearly budget. The basic wage cannot be less than 80% of the monthly minimal nominal wage rate and cannot exceed 120% of the latter. It can also not be less than in the previous year. The overall wage is calculated based on the minimum wage rate for a particular position time the coefficient for that particular position plus allowances and other supplementary financial means as provided by the Law and other normative acts [1].
The Appendix 3 of the above law separately presents the ratios of pay for military posts by rank. The rates of pay for civil, political or discretionary positions are also set out in Annexes 1 and 2 of this law. Since the base salary of each year is approved by the state budget of each year, any interested person may multiply the base salary by the published coefficients by the positions and titles in the above law and receive the exact amount of the salary. The remuneration rates for public servants of technical service have been approved by the decree 737-N of July 3 2014, which is also public.[2, 3].

The Law on State Officials Payment regulates the allowances both for military and civil personnel. Article 16 of the law states that the allowances are calculated based on the basic wage times the coefficient for a particular rank. The lists of coefficients for each state institution are provided in the law as annexes, in the case of the defence sector staff its Annex 3 of the law [1]. There is also Decree 712-ն that provides an additional regulation to the allowances of the military staff of the MoD. The decree carefully defines all those cases when additional allowances are to be calculated to the basic wage of the military staff [2].

According to the Law on the Status of Military Servants (1) depending on the conditions of military service, speciality, military occupation, military rank and military service, military servants have the right to receive money from the state (Article 10.2). Pay rates are not available to the public. It is not a military secret, but it is impossible to get information from the Ministry of Defence on the subject. The public can access information on any increases to pay rates of the military from the president’s decrees. In 2013, 2016 and 2018 the pay rates for military servicemen and civilians increased three times, each time by ten per cent (2, 3, 4). In June 2019, the pay rates for military servicemen and civilians have increased forty per cent (5).

No information on allowances is available publicly.

Pay rates for civilian and military personnel are designated in the Law on Salaries and Allowances in the institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina [1, 2]. The law is publicly available. The law defines pay grades and the coefficient for military and civilian personnel, while the base for calculation of the salary is defined by a separate decision on the amount of the base salary for employees in the institutions of Bosnia and Herzegovina [1]. Pay rates and allowances for the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina are published as a budget item in the Law on Budget of BiH Institutions and International Obligations, and it is available to the public [3]. Also, the latest report on budget spending for 2016 by the MoD summarised information on pay rates and allowances it is publicly available [4].

Special allowances for military personnel are defined by the Law on Salaries and Allowances in the institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina [1]. The law defines pay grades and coefficients for military and civilian personnel. The base calculation of the salary is defined through a separate decision on the amount of the base salary for employees in the institutions of Bosnia and Herzegovina [2]. The last decision adopted by the Council of the Ministers of BiH was in 2018. The total amount of pay rates and allowances for the MoD and the AFBiH is published as a budget item in the Law on Budget of Bosnia and Herzegovina Institutions and International Obligations and is available to the public. In the latest report on budget spending in 2016, the MoD summarised information on pay rates and allowances [3].

Pay rates for personnel in the MoD, both civilian and military are not available to the public (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7).

No information on allowances is available publicly (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7).

There is no available information on the salaries of civilian and military personnel. According to one Reuters (June 4, 2017) report, “A government spokesman declined to comment on the amount of the salaries” [1].

Although allowances of military and civilian personnel are often mentioned publicly including amounts, eligibility and calculation methods are not often mentioned [1].

In 2015, the former Minister of Defence Alain Mego Ngoh said senior officers who embezzled allowances made for military personnel would be tried in military courts but nothing was said about the amount embezzled, nor was it specified how much each member of personnel was due [1]. Even when soldiers went on the streets in Yaounde asking for unpaid allowances for the United Nations peacekeeping mission in the Central African Republic (Reuters, 2018), details of these allowances were not made public [2].

The pay rates are not officially published on the MoD website or facilitated by the government. However, the pay rates are sometimes available in a cursory, abbreviated or unreliable form by official sources.
As there is no detailed breakdown of pay rates available via the MoD or the government, the information appears to be leaked and then published by Ivorian media, including by the opposition daily “Aujourd’hui”, which disclosed the MoD pay rates on January 9, 2018.

No information on salary levels (grilles salariales) is available on the MoD website. However, the MoD website does contain a dedicated page showing a breakdown of the existing military ranks (army, navy, air force) (1). In January 2018, the website of Diaspora Côte d’Ivoire, citing the opposition daily “Aujourd’hui”, published the 2018 salaries for members of the Armed Forces according to rank. The salary increases were in response to the soldier mutinies of 2017, the website stated. Several other sources pointed to the daily “Aujourd’hui” as the source of the leaked information (2). Previously, in December 2017, the Côte d’Ivoire News portal had also cited the opposition daily “Aujourd’hui” as the source of the information on MoD pay rates pointing out that the government had not denied that the leaks were false, thus supposedly vouching for the leaked pay rates (3). The article stated:

“In the hope that Ivorians do not find out the origin of the funds that were used to pay the mutineers and especially the legal provisions that made it possible to pay this important sum to officials who “rebelled”, please find attached the salary grid in the Ivorian army. This list published last January by the daily “Aujourd’hui” has so far not been denied by the military hierarchy” (3).

Neither the government nor the MoD publishes pay rates, apparently due to political liabilities. However, information on pay rates is leaked to Ivorian media and is therefore available.

As in 39A, the government and MoD do not publish the pay rates or special allowances for military and civilian personnel. No news item was uploaded to the MoD website (tab for “Actualités”) regarding special allowances (1). This type of information on special allowances has not been leaked by the opposition daily “Aujourd’hui”. But during the soldier uprisings in Bouaké in January 2018, Jeune Afrique mentioned that the non-payment of family allowances (allocations familiales) was one of the soldiers’ grievances (2).

In December 2017, the government agreed to pay 15 million FCFA for each of the 991 members of the military who had applied for a special early retirement scheme by end-2017. This was part of the government’s concessions following the soldier uprisings (mutineries) that took place in Bouaké and other towns in January and May 2017. At a ceremony in Abidjan, Minister of Defence Hamed Bakayoko handed out the checks to those present at the ceremony. All 991 officers were subsequently permanently deleted from the MoD payroll (3).

“During this launching ceremony, 10 of the 991 soldiers, including 3 officers, 634 non-commissioned officers and 354 non-commissioned members of voluntary rank, symbolically received a check for 15 million FCFA each. The 881 other soldiers who had a favorable opinion for this voluntary retirement, will also each receive a check of 15 million FCFA before December 31, 2017, by which time they should all be permanently removed from the Ivorian Army” (3).

The soldier allowances are thought to be one of the sources of soldier grievances in the January 2017 uprisings in Bouaké and other towns. However, as with pay rates, no information is publicly available on special allowances.

Pay rates for civilian and military personnel are not openly published. However, rates of increases are usually issued by law or presidential decree and therefore made public (1), (2).

There is no information published publicly or internally about pay rates or allowance as this information is considered confidential data (1), (2). Allowances for civilian and military personnel are not openly published by the Ministry of Defence or the Ministry of Finance or any other official platform.

According to the Public Service Act, [1] since 2015 all the officials’ salary data are published only on one “central website”, which is the website of the Ministry of Finance. [2] The data is published once a year not later than 1 May, and it shows the officials’ salaries for the previous year. All the data including information on salaries is merged into one Excel spreadsheet.
According to the law, it shows the basic salary and variable pay and other income arising from the official’s functions for each specific individual. All officials are named by their first and last name, and position. The officials are from the public defence institutions: the Ministry of Defence, Defence Resources Agency, Estonian Defence Forces, the Commander of the Defence Forces (all the commanders at different levels, companies and battalions, including the Estonian National Defence College). The remunerations of the Defence League staff, however, are not published. The Estonian Defence League is a voluntary militarily organised national defence organisation. Even though it operates in the area of government of the Ministry of Defence and is a part of the Defence Forces, its legal status is that of a legal person governed by public law. [3] The organisation mainly consists of volunteers, but the commanders do get paid. Their salaries are not included in the public data on officials’ salaries. The latest (outdated) data on their remuneration is published on the Defence League’s website and is publicly available. [4]

The Civil Service Act states that besides the official’s basic salary, other incomes like variable pay and bonuses have to be made public. [1] The same act also lays out some rules for allowances, explaining the general principles of paying the allowances in the defence sector. Different types of remunerations are explained, but it doesn’t explain explicitly how allowances are calculated. For example, it explains that bonuses can be paid as a one-time payment or periodically, but not for more than six months. No caps and no methodology of calculating these bonuses are made public. The Salary Guide explains in greater detail how allowances are paid. [2].

The government started an important reform of public service in 2015 when the parliament adopted the Law On State Service [1]. A substantial part of the reform was a change of existing non-systematic practice of salaries in public service and various state institutions. The government initiated and the parliament adopted the Law On Remuneration in State Institutions [2]. The Law On Remuneration in State Institutions defines the criteria, ceilings and rankings for salaries and conditions for allowance payments. Based on the abovementioned laws pay rates and allowances of military and civilian personnel are regulated by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) Decree #1 [3]. Information is publicly available on the website of the MoD [4, 5].

The government started an important reform of public service in 2015 when the parliament adopted the Law On State Service [1]. A substantial part of the reform was a change of existing non-systematic practice of salaries in public service and various state institutions. The government initiated and the parliament adopted the Law On Remuneration in State Institutions [2]. The Law On Remuneration in State Institutions defines the criteria, ceilings and rankings for salaries and conditions for allowance payments. Based on the abovementioned laws pay rates and allowances of military and civilian personnel are regulated by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) Decree #1 [3]. Information is publicly available on the website of the MoD [4, 5].

Pay rates for the MOD’s employees are published in the annual budget, but only in a highly aggregated form. For instance, according to the 2018 MOD’s budget, GH¢746.558m was expended for employees in 2016 including gratuities (GH¢100.304m) (1). As for 2017, actual expenditure on the 30th of September stood at GH¢566.006m.

Information on pay rates for personnel involved in peacekeeping operations has been made publicly available recently (March 2017), following the decision to increase the daily pay from USD 31 to USD 35 (2).

No information is made publicly available on the allowances in the 2018 Ministry of Defence budget (1), (2).

Pay rates are described in detail by a ministerial decree that was modified in previous years several times to adapt personal changes including new positions [1]. The decree is comprehensive as it provides percentages compared to the basic pay; it is complicated to calculate the actual payrolls based on the information. Pages on recruitment also provide comprehensive information on pay rates and allowances [2].

The criteria for eligibility and calculation methods of the allowances regarding military personnel is published openly [1]. Pay rates are described in detail by a ministerial decree that was modified previously years several times to adapt personal changes, including new positions [1]. Pages on recruitment also provide comprehensive information on the pay rates and allowances [2]. Civilians at the MoD belong to the civil service, and a different law is applied in their case [3], it also includes the criteria for eligibility and calculation methods of the allowances, and it is also openly published. Trade unions are mainly involved in the discussions on allowances, and results are usually published in press [4].

No single database presents an accurate break down of the payments granted to Iraq’s security actors/employees.

Scant references of the wages army recruits receive appear across Arabic language pieces. As specified in a Rudaw-published article (1) salaries start at 900,000 dinars, underscoring that PMF recruits earn 500, 000 dinars, “excluding allowances”. An activist interview added that salaries vary depending on rank, and geographic stationing, “but generally range from 850, 000 to 900, 000 (Iraqi dinars). MP Noura Al Bjari also revealed (2) that before Abadi’s decision to pay PMF militias wages equal to their army counterparts, PMF fighters received a wage 750 IQD, as allocated by the state. The political move has emerged as a major flashpoint. High ranking commanders including Mohandis and Hadi al Ameri from Badr corps are bankrolled by Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard who Iraq’s militias view as its number one ally in its fight against terrorism (3). On March 21, Baghdad approved an agreement with KRI, to allocate $281 million to pay the salaries of Kurdish security forces and civil servants (4) [257].
Despite having gained permanent status as official ‘state-actors’ following the passing of Hashd commission law in late 2016 (5), the allocation and distribution of wages remained ambiguous, until Abadi issued a decree in April 2018 (6) that equalised the wages and pensions of army soldiers with PMF fighters. Some analysts have argued that (5), (7) these developments are indicative of Abadi’s inability to reign militias in. Some have gone as far as to attribute the rise of PMF wages, to military commanders lobbying efforts. One source underlines this (5). “The Prime Minister’s Office had little choice but to accept”. Since October 2015, the umbrella organization’s commission has been allocated anywhere between $1 to $1.5 bn. Coverage in later months, suggests that the move to equalise salaries has yet to be implemented. Deputy parliamentary speaker Humam Hamoudi warned against delays (8), and another Arabic article mentioned planned protests by the PMF in protest against ambiguous provisions of the Hashd law, particularly provisions related to pay (8). At present, the Hashd’s commission is the responsible actor disbursing monthly wages, according to state budget allocations, but various accusations of selective and differential pay have been levelled against it (9). Other PMF brigades are said to be paid by a localised religious Shi’i institute known as Al Ataba al Husseiniya (9). Overall the picture regarding rates and allowances for military personal is scattered and incomplete based on openly published data, which implies that state funding is not the only financial resource used to pay the wages of paramilitaries.

Allowances are not referred to in any of the available sources or official government websites. The only reference made to allowances emerges in articles that discuss Abadi’s decree to equalise the salaries of Iraqi soldiers and PMF fighters. A military expert interview (1) notes that “the salary of the Iraqi solider does not exceed one million Iraqi dinars” “which includes a food allowance. PMF fighters, in contrast, the source stated, receive up to 750 thousand dinars, including food allowances.

Pay rates are published for both civilian and military personnel. However, they are only released in their abstract forms. Sometimes, the bonuses are also published. “Monthly bonuses”, which vary for each officer depending on his unity and level of seniority, are not published. [1,2,3]

Similar to pay rates, allowances for military and civil personnel of the armed forces are also openly discussed in Jordan. Article 15 of the Armed Forces Law No. 3 of 2007, published on the armed forces official website, lists allowances and privileges granted to armed forces personnel [1]. The list of rights, as stipulated in the article, include (1) salaries and bonuses, (2) retirement salaries and disability allowances, (3) housing loans, (4) scholarships for children of armed forces personnel, (5) health insurance, (6) benefits of the military association’s services, (7) privileges granted according to rank and position, and (8) incentives, material and moral rewards. These allowances were initially granted to military personnel in the armed forces, however, in 2018, these were extended to include civilian personnel of the armed forces [2]. Based on the law and on information available to the media, there is criteria for eligibility and calculation methods for allowances for armed forces personnel, but there is no evidence of the criteria being publicly available. For instance, in 2018 the armed forces announced via local news, the benefits and privileges for families of martyrs, or families of armed forces personnel who pass away while on duty. The announcement included details about the eligibility criteria and calculation methods. This demonstrates that eligibility criteria exist, but they are not fully available to the public. Sporadic information is available on different media outlets. T’here is evidence to support that allowances for civilian and military personnel are published, but there is not much information available about criteria for eligibility and calculation methods.

Pay rates for civilian and military personnel of the Ministry of Defence and the Kosovo Security Forces are not publicly available. The annual report of the Ministry of Defence is the only service publication of this institution that provides data on the overall annual budget expenditures for personnel salaries [1]. Additionally, it is unclear how much of the budget is dedicated to salaries, given that wages and salaries are aggregated [1].
The Kosovo Treasury, which functions within the Ministry of Finance [2], publishes quarterly reports, semi-annual reports, nine-month reports, and annual financial reports on the budget and its expenditures [3]. The Treasury’s 2018 financial report contains mostly aggregated data on expenditures by state institutions at both central and local levels [4].

Pay rates for civilian and military personnel of the Ministry of Defence and the Kosovo Security Forces are not publicly available. The annual report of the Ministry of Defence is the only service publication of this institution that provides data on the overall annual budget expenditures for personnel salaries [1].
Additionally, it is unclear how much of the budget is dedicated to salaries, given that wages and salaries are aggregated [1].
The Kosovo Treasury, which functions within the Ministry of Finance [2], publishes quarterly reports, semi-annual reports, nine-month reports, and annual financial reports on the budget and its expenditures [3]. The Treasury’s 2018 financial report contains mostly aggregated data on expenditures by state institutions at both central and local levels [4].
With regard to eligibility, the Law No. 06/L-124 on Service in the Kosovo Security Forces (KSF) states that all the KSF members are entitled to salary, salary allowance and other types of compensation [5]. These allowances and compensations are based on hazardous tasks, overtime work, shift work, holiday work, assignments to special duties and for extraordinary performance/achievement [5]. The current Regulation No. 02/2018 on Salaries in the Kosovo Security Forces states that for each year of work experience, salary beneficiaries are entitled to an allowance worth 0.5% of the base salary [6]. The Regulation No. 07/2019 on Internal Organisation and Settlement of Job Positions in the Ministry of Defence stipulates that the Ministry of Defence’s Sector for Salaries, Compensation and Personal Requests is responsible for drafting policies and financial analyses for allowances for personnel in the Ministry of Defence and the Kosovo Security Forces.

No information on pay rates for civilian or military staff is available. Some journalists and lawmakers gain access to them but the state does not make them officially available to the public. (1)

No information on the allowances of civil or military personnel is made available to the public by the Government.

The Ministry of Defence publishes the salaries of all of its employees, and of the employees of its subordinate institutions, each month in an open database. [1] Information on the annual income of the employees is also available on the website of the State Revenue Service. [2] At the same time, the monthly salaries of soldiers are not published due to security reasons. [3] If there are additional questions or clarifications needed, the public can appeal to the MOD for further information. [4]

According to the government reviewer, the Constitutional Court of Latvia had case Nr. 2018-11-01 [5] on Compliance of Para 1 and Para 2 of Section 3 (92) of the law “On Remuneration of Officials and Employees of State and Local Government Authorities” with Article 96 of the Satversme of the Republic of Latvia. The Court ruled on 6 March 2019 that this regulation does not comply with Article 96 of Satversme and it is not valid from the date of adoption. According to the Court’s ruling, the MOD publishes the information about criteria for payment and the payment amounts according to categories as well as other additional information according to the Cabinet of Ministers regulation.

While the policy on remuneration, including allowances, is openly published and clear [1] and the database refferred to in the previous sub-indicator contains information on the allowances of civilian employees, [2] the allowances of soldiers along with their salaries are not published.

According to the government reviewer, the Constitutional Court of Latvia had case Nr. 2018-11-01 [3] on Compliance of Para 1 and Para 2 of Section 3 (92) of the law “On Remuneration of Officials and Employees of State and Local Government Authorities” with Article 96 of the Satversme of the Republic of Latvia. The Court ruled on 6 March 2019 that this regulation does not comply with Article 96 of Satversme and it is not valid from the date of adoption. According to the Court’s ruling, the MOD publishes the information about criteria for payment and the payment amounts according to categories as well as other additional information according to the Cabinet of Ministers regulation. Information about allowances (annual income) of public officials both civil servants and soldiers are publicly available on the State Revenue Service web page https://www6.vid.gov.lv/VAD.

In July 2017, the Parliament passed a salary scale law public administration workers and military personnel (1). The law is available online on the Lebanese University’s Center for Research and Studies in Legal Informatics that provides an online platform for current and old legal documents. However, the tables disaggregating the salary increase per ranks and grades are found on public media outlets and not on official government websites. Pay rates for all civilian and military personnel are published disaggregated by rank (2). According to Art. 101 of the National Defence Law, state employees provisions apply to the civilians working under the Ministry of Defence (3).

The decrees indicating the allowances and its criteria for civilian and military personnel are published online. As previously mentioned in 39A, civilians at the MoD are subject to the provisions of the civil servants. Thus the military personnel’s allowances (1) and civilian allowances (2) are published in two different decrees.

The Ministry of Defence and the Lithuanian armed forces publish online the average civilian personnel pay rates, broken down by position [1, 2]. Military pay by rank is publicly available as well [3]. The explanatory note summarising the reasons for salary changes is published as well [1,2]

The exact amount of allowances for civilians is not published. Allowances are included in the average salaries as disclosed by the Ministry of Defence. Military personnel allowances, their calculation methods, and eligibility criteria are set by the Law on the Organisation of the National Defence and on Military Service [2] that is openly published. However, there is no information publicly available on how much was spent on allowances each year.

There is an established system for salaries and allowances for civil servants and military officials. While some salary figures are published, they are incomplete and poorly disaggregated. For instance, as part of the current government’s military reforms, the Ministry of Defence has increased soldiers’ salaries by about 15%. Each soldier now earns between 75,000 and 100,000 CFA per month, in addition to a risk bonus/allowance of 1,200 CFA for every day spent as part of an active military operation.¹ Members of the armed forces also now receive subsidised accommodation and social security cover, something they didn’t previously get.¹
However, the assessor was unable to find a clear and current breakdown of salaries for more senior military figures. A source from 2007 reveals that at the time an army general earned 236,840 CFA per month, not including bonuses and allowances.² The article provides the index number for a seemingly comprehensive series of ranks and titles within the security forces, but it does not offer corresponding salaries.² Given the dated nature of this information, the subsequent change of government, the dramatic events that have since ensued and the current government’s reforms of the armed forces, this data is deemed to be inaccurate for 2018.
Moreover, the assessor has found no breakdown of pay grades within the civil service more generally from within the past ten years. In 2014, the government reformed the salary structure for the civil service. Local media reported the job categorisations along with their corresponding indices, but did not convey actual salary information.³ The government’s own website does not contain any relevant information relating to civil servants’ salaries.⁴

Publicly available information relating to allowances for civilian and military personnel is scant. Decree n° 96.16/P.RM provides superficial information on military allowances. Members of the armed forces obtain a risk bonus/allowance of 1,200 CFA for every day spent as part of an active military operation.¹ They also receive subsidised accommodation and social security cover, something they didn’t previously get.¹
However, the assessor has found no information specifying the precise amounts or eligibility criteria for these benefits 2,3. Nor did the assessor find any information about the allowances available to members of the civil service or how any such scheme operates. The government’s own website does not contain any relevant information relating to civil servants’ remuneration.⁴

The calculation of salaries for employees is made in accordance with the Law on salaries in the public sector and for military personnel on the basis of the Regulation on the salaries of persons in service in the Armed Forces of Montenegro. [1] Pay rates for civilian and military personnel are regulated, [2][3] but information on actual payments is not available. [4] Only basic pay rates are provided in the decree (3), but they differ from actual payments, which include many other additions to the basic salary (e.g. overtime, awards, additional fees etc). The only available information is about the salaries of public officials working in the defence sector, provided in their asset declarations. [5]

No information on allowances is publicly available, [1] and the Ministry claims that releasing such information would violate the right to privacy. [2] The decree on pay rates of employees in the Army of Montenegro does provide criteria for eligibility when it comes to allowances. It also includes methods for calculation allowances without disclosing actual figures.

Information about pay rates for civilian and military personnel are available in an unreliable manner in discussion forums as well as in a very vague way in articles (1)(2)(3)(4). In both cases this information is out-of-date (pre-2015). This implies that information may be available locally (ie by physically visiting military barracks or military information offices, or paper versions of these documents might be handed out to members of the military) but does not confirm whether the pay rate per rank is consistent regardless of the individual.

The inconsistent, outdated and unofficial character of the pay rates disclosed suggests a lack of transparency at all levels of seniority within the Moroccan armed forces. Interviewees suspect that the lack of transparency concerning pay rates, especially concerning senior officers, may lead to and result from the fact that the former receive financial and non-financial advantages in return for their loyalty to the regime. There is no regular update pattern and no information as to how frequently this information is updated.

Information about allowances for civilian and military personnel are available in an unreliable manner in discussion forums, as well as in a very vague way in articles (1)(2)(3)(4). In both cases this information is dated (pre-2015). This implies that information may be available locally but does not confirm whether allowances per rank are consistent regardless of the individual.

The inconsistent, outdated and unofficial character of the allowances disclosed suggests a lack of transparency at all levels of seniority within the Moroccan armed forces. Interviewees suspect that the lack of transparency concerning allowances, especially concerning senior officers, may lead to and result from the fact that the former receive financial and non-financial advantages in return for their loyalty to the regime.

Pay rates for personnel working in security and defence are available in service publications (1). While no information is made available to the general public, the system for salaries and allowances is clearly established. It is determined either on the basis of the category to which the civil servant belongs or on his/her longevity in office (2,3), according to legal provisions (4,5).  

Allowances are well-defined and based on clearly stated criteria (familial allowance, number of years in office (1,2)). For “zones de mise en garde”, that is zones considered to be unsecure (for example, the Diffa region and Tillabery) there are special allowances but with an equal rate disregarding grade (3,4,5).

Although the Consolidated Armed Forces Salary Structure (CONAFSS) was made public in previous years, it is not regularly updated, or easily accessible to the public in a detailed and comprehensive way. Pay rates are available but they are not detailed as they do not provide information to the public on benefits and other emoluments. This renders the information partial and unreliable, as the rules of their application are not publicly available (1).

Information on allowances is not publicly available (1).

Pay rates, allowances and salaries for the Ministry of Defence and Army personnel are regulated by the Collective Agreement of the Ministry of Defence [1] which draws on the Law of Labor Relations [2] and the Law On Army Service [3]. These rates are secured within the Ministry of Defence budget which, in a summarised form, discloses the annual amounts allocated on the Ministry of Defence website [4]. According to the Agreement, pay rates are expressed in points, and are calculated by multiplying the number of points with the value of the point (Article 66). Individual salaries and allowances of each employee is not made public, apart from some exceptional cases determined by law (Article 65) [2]. Since 2016, only the salaries of leadership staff of the Ministry of Defence and Army are openly published on the Ministry of Defence website [5]. The Law on Army Service determines the pay rates and the calculation methods for the military personnel [3]. These pay rates depend on the rank, responsibilities and work experience of a given staff member (Article 148) [3] and the value of the points earned by the staff member, which is determined by the Minister of Defence (Article 147) [3].

The criteria for allowances are determined by the Collective Agreement of the Ministry of Defence [1] which draws on the Law of Labor Relations [2] and the Law On Army Service [3]. These allowances are calculated in points and depend on a number of variables including overtime, night shifts, field work, education, risk, rank, experience etc. Information on allowances is only available in summarised form in the Ministry of Defence.

There is no openly published information on pay rates for civilian or military personnel. No information on relevant the institution’s websites was found on minimum wage in the public sector (1), (2), (3). Salaries are decided by the council of ministers and then announced by the minister, there is no standard minimum wage in the public sector only in the private sector following Royal Decree 223/2013, stating 235 rials as the minimum wage for Omani workers in addition to a 100 rials allowance (4), (5). Public sector salaries are dependent on ministries, no information as available on civilian and military personnel (2), (6). The Omani Labour Law of 2012 does not apply to military or security personnel who are governed by military service law (Royal Decree 110/2011 and 16/2018) (4), (7). Pay rates and salaries are not published and are not available to the public. The rates are usually available upon request by personnel from the financial department and their respective units only (8), (9).

No information on allowances regarding military and civilian personnel is made publicly available. The allowances vary, and they are not made available to the majority of the units as they are considered confidential financial information (1), (2). Neither the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Finance, nor the eGovernment portal has any information regarding allowances for civilian or military personnel (3), (4). As outlined above in the 2012 Labour Act provisions were made for allowance for private sector Omani employees; however, no details are available regarding public sector allowances (5).

Pay rates for all civilian and military personnel are published in the official journal of the PA as well as in the Military Service Law disaggregated by rank. Summarised information is made available to the general public (1), (2). The eligibility and calculation methods are also available.

Allowances for all civilian and military personnel are published in the official journal of the PA as well as in the Military Service Law (1). These allowances can increase and decrease based on the rank as well as the type of the job (i.e. overtime or operations).

The Ministry of National Defence publishes detailed information about the pay rates for the military personnel, disaggregated by rank. It is publicly available on the MoND website [1]. Pay rates for civilian personnel, disaggregated by ranks, are regulated by the ordinance of the prime minister based on the Civil Service Act [2]. In March 2017, as a reaction to an MP’s interpellation, the ministry published detailed information about pay rates for the civilian personnel [3].

Calculation methods and eligibility criteria for allowances for military personnel are regulated by public ordinance’s from the defence ministry [1]. Allowances for civil service personnel are regulated by the Civil Service Act and related regulation [2]. In March 2017, as a reaction to an MP’s interpellation, the ministry published detailed information about allowances for civilian personnel [3].

Pay rates are published only for selected civilian and military personnel. [1] Section three of Law No. 31 (2006) of the Military Service Act addresses salaries and promotions, and states that salaries and promotions can be changed through an Emiri Decree. [2] The same law includes a section on salary scales based on positions, and promotions, in addition to the maximum number of allowable promotions. This, however, does not include salary scales for defence personnel in high ranking positions. Human Resources Law No. 15 (2016), issued through an Emiri Decree, introduced some changes to salary scales for governmental positions. [3,4] The same law, however, excludes the defence and military sectors, and the salaries of high-ranking Government personnel, such as ministers. Salaries within the defence sector are considered to be the highest among governmental positions, however, there are no further details provided particularly about those personnel in high ranking positions. [5] The salary scale for the defence sector is published in a basic salary format, but not in detail. [6] However, there are exceptions, for instance when the Emir or the Minister of Defence issue decrees that increase military personnel salaries. These decrees are not predictable.

The only document publicly available about pay rates for military personnel is Law No. 31 (2006). Articles 21 and 22 of Law No. 31 (2006) of the Military Service Act, mention allowances such as housing, transportation, social security and other benefits determined by the ‘specialised authorities.’ [1,2] Other than this mention, there are no details about eligibility criteria, or different allowances based on seniority. Bonuses and allowances are published annually on the official gazette of the MoD and MoF. [3] In many cases, such information could be printed publicly, but newspapers and websites refrain from doing so as salaries are not of particular interest in Qatar, especially as most of the defence sector employees are Qatari nationals.

The government does not publish detailed information on pay rates or salaries for civilian or military employees either on government websites, recruitment webpages or the local media. According to our sources, this information is considered confidential, and employees are not allowed to share it outside their units (1), (2).

According to our sources, fixed allowances (bonuses for accommodation, cars, etc.) for senior commanders are not published; however, allowance and bonus increases by royal decrees are published for the public (1), (2). The government occasionally announces pay raises and bonuses for public sector employees, including military personnel (3). For example, in January 2018, local media outlets reported that King Salman ordered a SAR 1,000 monthly allowance for all government staff, including military employees, for a period of one year (4). However, the researcher found no publicly available information on specific salary structures or methods of calculation for these salaries. The government does occasionally release broad figures on the amount it spends on civil service salaries; however, these are overall figures and exclude the include military and security sectors (5), (6).

Information on the average salaries in the MoD and SAF, divided by rank, is regularly updated and openly published on the MoD’s website [1]. The MoD also compiles and publishes a three-year budget realisation plan overview, which entails the aggregated data on the funds allocated and spent on salaries and allowances [2].

Information on the total amount of resources distributed for allowances is published together with the summary of funds allocated and spent on salaries [1].The conditions and criteria for the reimbursement of travel and other expenses and other allowances in the Serbian Armed Forces are laid down in the Rulebook on Reimbursement of Travel and Other Expenses and Other Receipts in the Serbian Armed Forces [2] [3].

Pay rates for all civilian and military personnel are taken under the form of Governmental Decrees and published in the Official Gazette of the Tunisian Republic, disaggregated by rank. Information about pay rates of military personnel is also published in the official gazette (for example Décret n° 2007-2408 du 2 Octobre 2007 modifiant le décret n° 79-96 du 11 janvier 1979 fixant la solde des militaires non classés dans la grille indiciaire de la fonction publique et le régime de l’alimentation dans l’armée) (1). The official gazette is available online (2).

Allowances for all civilian and military personnel are openly published, including criteria for eligibility and calculation methods. For example, Governmental Decree n°767-2018, dated 13 September 2018, concerning the establishment and adjustment of conditions for the allocation of a “special grant” gives the amount of the allowance disaggregated by military rank (1). Many other legal texts concerning allowances are published in the Official Gazette (2, 3). The majority of pay rates and allowances for military personnel are published. However, some texts were not published like Decree 225-2011, dated the 22 October 2011. (4)

Pay rates for military personnel are publicly available and disaggregated by rank [1, 2]. Summarised information is made available to the general public [3, 4]. The general procedure of paying salaries for civilians (including those of the MoD) is established by the Law of Ukraine on Public Service [5] with details about particular salaries being established by the CMU Resolution [6]. Average MoD servicemen and civilians’ salaries are also published in the MoD budget request [7]. There is also a regulation on salaries for heads of state-owned enterprises [8]. However, this data is widely scattered and there is no one single place to get all this information.
Moreover, the pay rates of MoD and other military officials can also be openly and transparently checked through the website of the National Agency of Corruption Prevention (https://public.nazk.gov.ua/). While it is a useful tool, it provides the aggregate of all incomes (salary + allowances + possible salaries from teaching). As such, the information is not clear enough to understand the pay rates of officials.

There is legislation in place establishing the allowance framework for servicemen [1,2]. However, allowances are paid depending on the allowances fund, and allowances rates are provided by the Minister`s decision [3]. Allowances are paid following the rules on the allowances of military personnel, which is developed in military units based on the specifics of the tasks of a specific military unit [4]. Specific instructions are not publicly available. The general procedure of paying allowances for civilians, including those of the MoD, is established by the Law of Ukraine on Public Service [4], and a CMU resolution [5]. Specific numbers of allowances for civilians are provided by MoD Order No. 15 of August 31, 2016 [6], but the document itself is not published.

Research has revealed that salary scales and pay rates are published only for selected civilian and military personnel. The official websites of the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Finance (1), (2) do not include any information related to pay rates of military and civilian personnel. The salaries are not unified and do not represent reality as they vary from time to time based on royal decrees. High-ranking officers salaries are never published and may receive their salaries from the Crown Prince’s Office and not the Ministry of Defence (3), (4).

There is no publicly available information on allowances for military and civilian personnel in the UAE. It has been established that the official websites of the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Finance (1), (2) do not include any information related to pay rates of military and civilian personnel, neither do they include information about allowances. Research shows that some platforms published information about salary scales and allowances for the UAE police, rather than the defence sector. According to an article published in the Khaleej Times, the police and security forces in UAE ‘have [a] telephone allowance and periodic bonuses’ as well (3). Officers at the rank of brigadier and above can get an annual bonus equal to six per cent of their base salary. Additionally, force members are also entitled to special bonuses with a minimum of Dh500 to Dh20,000 monthly (3). However, no information as such is available either for the civilian or military personnel within the armed forces or the Ministry of Defence (4), (5).

Country Sort by Country 39a. Pay rates Sort By Subindicator 39b. Allowances Sort By Subindicator
Albania 100 / 100 100 / 100
Algeria 0 / 100 0 / 100
Angola 75 / 100 0 / 100
Armenia 100 / 100 100 / 100
Azerbaijan 0 / 100 0 / 100
Bosnia and Herzegovina 100 / 100 100 / 100
Burkina Faso 0 / 100 0 / 100
Cameroon 0 / 100 25 / 100
Cote d'Ivoire 0 / 100 0 / 100
Egypt 0 / 100 0 / 100
Estonia 75 / 100 50 / 100
Georgia 100 / 100 100 / 100
Ghana 25 / 100 0 / 100
Hungary 100 / 100 100 / 100
Iraq 25 / 100 0 / 100
Jordan 25 / 100 50 / 100
Kosovo 25 / 100 25 / 100
Kuwait 0 / 100 0 / 100
Latvia 75 / 100 75 / 100
Lebanon 100 / 100 100 / 100
Lithuania 100 / 100 25 / 100
Mali 25 / 100 25 / 100
Montenegro 25 / 100 25 / 100
Morocco 25 / 100 0 / 100
Niger 75 / 100 100 / 100
Nigeria 25 / 100 0 / 100
North Macedonia 100 / 100 100 / 100
Oman 0 / 100 0 / 100
Palestine 100 / 100 100 / 100
Poland 100 / 100 100 / 100
Qatar 50 / 100 50 / 100
Saudi Arabia 0 / 100 25 / 100
Serbia 100 / 100 75 / 100
Tunisia 100 / 100 100 / 100
Ukraine 100 / 100 25 / 100
United Arab Emirates 25 / 100 0 / 100

With thanks for support from the UK Department for International Development and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs who have contributed to the Government Defence Integrity Index.

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