Is there an established, independent, transparent, and objective appointment system for the selection of military personnel at middle and top management level?
41a. Formal process
Niger score: 75/100
There is no established appointment system for military personnel.
There are formal processes in place, but they are regularly undermined by undue influence or inappropriate conduct in the promotion process. The civil service is not involved in the appointment process at all.
Appointments do not always apply objective job descriptions and standardised assessment processes, e.g., decisions may be unjustifiable based on objective criteria, or promotion boards may have members from within the chain of command. However, this is not a widespread or common practice.
The system for appointment of military personnel at middle and top management applies objective job descriptions and standardised assessment processes, though there is little independent scrutiny being paid to the promotion of senior personnel, e.g., promotion boards may not have independent observers.
The system for appointment of military personnel at middle and top management applies objective job descriptions and standardised assessment processes. Promotion boards are open and representatives from other branches of the armed forces are invited and regularly sit on the board. The civil service is involved for very high level ranks.
There is an established procedure (legal framework) in place to ensure the objective appointment of military personnel as per Ordonnance 2010-75 and Loi n° 2011-35. The security sector’s human resources management is characterised by clearly defined personnel regulations, competitive and transparent recruitment system, merit-based promotion and in-house training (1, 2). However, an online version of either the Ordonnance 2010-75 or Law No. 2011-35 is not available.
On 18 August 2011, Niger’s Council of Ministers amended Order No. 2010/75 (On the Status of Military Personnel in the Armed Forces) of 9 December 2010, which did not provide for the type of benefits that other military personnel (FAN, Gendarmerie Nationale) enjoy. The amended order (Loi n° 2011-35) was published on 28 October 2011 after adoption by the Assemblée Nationale (Lower House). Both Order No. 2010/75 and Law No. 2011/35 establish formal procedures for the recruitment of military personnel (5, 6).
In addition, the Constitution allows for a National Defence Council/Conseil supérieur de la défense nationale (Art. 63, 64 of the Constitution) and a National Security Council/ Conseil national de sécurité (Art. 63, 65 of the Constitution) as advisory units to the President, the Supreme Head of the Armed Forces. The Superior Council advises on the nomination of high-level military appointments and grade promotions of officers, alongside all other questions related to the military (Art. 64) (3). However, even if an established procedure guides the process of appointment, some officers may perceive it as not objective (4).
1. “Ordonnance 2010-75 du 9 décembre 2010, portant statut du personnel militaire des Forces Armées,” (Order no. 2010-75 of 9th December 2010, setting out the status of military personnel of the armed forces), Republic of Niger, December 9, 2010.
2. “Loi n° 2011-35 du 28 octobre 2011, modifiant et complétant l’ordonnance n° 2010-75 du 09 décembre 2010 portant statut du personnel militaire des Forces armées,” (Law no.2011-35 of 28th October 2011, amending and supplementing Order no.2010-75 of 9th December 2010, setting out the status of military personnel of the armed forces), Republic of Niger, October 28, 2011.
3. “Niger: Constitution de la VIIe République,” (Niger: Constitution of the 7th Republic) Journal Officiel de la République du Niger, 29 Novembre 2010, p. 246 à 261,”
4. Interview with senior Ministry of Defence official, June 4, 2018.
5. “Au Conseil des ministres: le gouvernement adopte plusieurs projets de textes et des mesures nominatives,” (At the Council of Ministers: the government adopts several draft texts and nominative measures), Planete Afrique, August 19, 2011, http://planeteafrique.com/niger/index.asp?affiche=News_Display.asp&ArticleID=6196
6. “Le gouvernement adopte plusieurs projets de décrets et se félicite de l’éligibilité du Niger pour le Programme Compact du MCC,” (The government adopts several draft decrees and congratulates itself on Niger’s eligibility for the MCC Compact Programme), Le Sahel, December 24, 2012, p. 1, http://nigerdiaspora.net/journaux/sahel-24-12-12.pdf.
Niger score: 0/100
There is no external scrutiny of the appointments of military personnel at middle and top management.
Appointments are only superficially audited for high profile positions, and parliament has no involvement.
Appointments are externally audited for high profile positions, but this process is not elaborate and may even be superficial. Parliament scrutinises decisions for very high level appointments.
Appointments are subject to external scrutiny for high profile positions, but this is not a regular practice. Parliament also scrutinises decisions for very high level appointments.
Appointments are subject to external scrutiny for high profile positions, which includes both process audits and a sample of individual promotions. Parliament also scrutinises decisions for very high level appointments.
The National Assemblee does not provide external scrutiny on the appointments of military personnel at middle and top management (1, 2) .
1. Interview with member of the National Assembly, May 24, 2018.
2. Interview with project manager of International NGO, May 31, 2018.
Niger score: 0/100
Little to no information is released about the appointment process.
Information on the appointment processis only partially available on websites or to the public and/or may be incomplete with regards to selection criteria.
Information on the appointment process is publicly available and includes the selection criteria for each rank.
There is some available information on the appointment process through informal mechanisms, based mostly on rumours but it is incomplete and often confusing. Personal connections within the army play an important role in the procedure for promotion, even though it can be also argued that because of extended kinships, family interconnections are most probable (1).
Results of nominations are publically available and diffused on a regular basis in the media. It was the case of one of the last nominations at the top management level in January 2018: following a retirement of the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, Brig. Gen. Seyni Garba and Commander of the Gendarmerie, Col. Mounkaila Issa, Brig. Gen. Ahmed Mohamed and Col.-Major Salifou Wakasso were nominated (2,3,4).
1. “Niger: Another Weak Link in the Sahel?,” International Crisis Group, 2013,
2. “Général Ahmed Mohamed, le nouveau patron de l’armée nigérienne,” (General Ahmed Mohamed, the new boss of the Nigerien army), Niger Diaspora, January 8, 2018, https://nigerdiaspora.net/index.php/societe/2950-general-ahmed-mohamed-le-nouveau-patron-de-l-armee-nigerienne.
3. “Niger/Défense: Les nouveaux responsables militaires de l’Etat-major,” (Niger/Defence: The new military leaders of the General Staff), Sahel Elite, January 16, 2018,
4. “Nominations du Chef d’Etat major des Armées adjoint et du Haut Commandant de la Gendarmerie Nationale,” (Appointments of the Chief of Staff of the Deputy Armies and the High Commander of the National Gendarmerie), Sahel Elite, January 14, 2018,
Compare scores by country
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|Country||41a. Formal process||41b. Scrutiny||41c. Transparency|
|Algeria||25 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Angola||25 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||25 / 100||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Cameroon||0 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||50 / 100||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Egypt||50 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Ghana||0 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Jordan||25 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Kuwait||0 / 100||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Lebanon||25 / 100||25 / 100||50 / 100|
|Mali||25 / 100||0 / 100||50 / 100|
|Morocco||25 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Niger||75 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Nigeria||25 / 100||25 / 100||50 / 100|
|Oman||25 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Palestine||0 / 100||0 / 100||25 / 100|
|Qatar||0 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||0 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Tunisia||75 / 100||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||25 / 100||0 / 100||50 / 100|