Is the defence budget transparent, showing key items of expenditure? And it is provided to the legislature in a timely fashion?
Niger score: 75/100
There is no information available about the budget.
A topline figure is published for the defence budget, but it is not broken down into functions or areas.
The defence budget may be completely missing areas listed in score 4, or information that is provided is highly aggregated or vague for most functions.
The defence budget contains comprehensive information on expenditure across functions, but information on some functions listed in score 4 may be not be available in disaggregated form.
The defence budget contains comprehensive and disaggregated information on expenditure across functions. Information includes personnel (salaries, allowances), military R&D, training, construction, procurement/acquisitions, maintenance of equipment, disposal of assets, and administrative expenses (Ministry of Defence or other services).
The Nigerien defence budget is published on an annual basis as part of the financial law available in the Official Journal, in a printed and online version. This shows key items of expenditure. According to the 2018 financial law provisions, the budget for the Ministry of Defence is divided into three sub-categories: control and administration of national defence policy (54 170 333 550, FCFA), securing national territory (72 589 000 000 FCFA) and peace consolidation (861 200 000 FCFA) (1). Relevant categories include such different sub-sections as recruitment, salaries, training, health services, military infrastructure, maintenance of equipment, armament and munitions acquisitions. The sub-sections provide for different lines on more detailed information regarding such details as fuel or even nature of important acquisitions (such as helicopters and armoured car) (2). Therefore, the defence budget contains comprehensive information on expenses across functions, but some information, regarding expenditures by intelligence services, is not detailed and is often just marked as “other services and acquisitions”.
It should also be noted that some services related to security and defence respond directly to the Presidency and therefore do not make part of the “defence budget”. These fall under the sub-category “security of the President of the Republic”, and include: Presidential Guard, the CNESS, Chief of the Military Staff of the President of the Republic, Directorate General of Documentation and External Security of the State. The sub-category “administration control” include “Office of the Inspector-General of the Army and of the National Gendarmerie”, which also does not make part of the Ministry of Defence’s budget (2).
Therefore, the defence budget is transparent by showing key items of expenditure, but it lacks specific details on some budget lines, including the intelligence services.
1. “Loi N° 2017-82 du 28 novembre 2017 portant loi de finances pour l’année budgétaire 2018,” (Act no.2017-82 of 28th November 2017, setting out the finances law for the 2018 budget year), Journal Officiel de la République du Niger, December 29 2017, p.847; 1062-1096.
2. “Loi N° 2017-82 du 28 novembre 2017 portant loi de finances pour l’année budgétaire 2018,” (Act no.2017-82 of 28th November 2017, setting out the finances law for the 2018 budget year), Journal Officiel de la République du Niger, December 29, 2017, p.1070.
Niger score: 50/100
The legislature either receives no information, or it receives misleading or inaccurate information on proposed defence expenditures.
The legislature receives an accurate defence budget proposal less than two months before the start of the budget year.
The legislature receives an accurate defence budget proposal between 2-4 months before the start of the budget year.
The National Assembly is responsible for analysing the national budget and provides government oversight when it comes to drafting budgetary legislation, which is passed annually. The World Bank describes the procedure of the budget discussion as follows (1): The minister of finance submits a draft in the plenary session; in the week that follows, he submits the draft to the Finance and Budget Committee (CFB) of the NA over a period of about five or six hours and expands the draft to include the scrutiny of revenue, expenditures and public policies. The seven standing general committees, including the Security and Defence Committee, review the draft over three weeks and may suggest proposals for amendments. The CFB scrutinises the portion of the draft law that pertains to the Ministry of Finance. The committees may take the testimony of experts if necessary. The Finance and Budget Committee analyses the draft budget with the minister of finance, his associates and the director-general of the Ministry. The CFB then deliberates in plenary session, conducts the arbitrage and drafts a summary document that comprises of the report of the Finance and Budget Committee. The Chair of the Finance and Budget Committee submits the report to the minister of finance. The plenary session debate lasts three days. The session is public and broadcast over the radio. Following the initial discussion, amendments are then debated. However, the final bill is often very similar to the original draft submitted by the government.
According to the World Bank Report analysis, the National Assembly has enough time to scrutinise the budget: “if the draft is not submitted at the beginning of the budget session so that parliament would have two months to scrutinise it, parliament nonetheless has two months to scrutinise it after the date it is submitted; and, as of the beginning of the next fiscal year, the government may commit expenditures and collect revenue on a provisional or estimated basis” (1) .
Nevertheless, in spite of these provisions, according to the Open Budget Survey 2017, in general, the legislature provides limited oversight during the planning stage of the budget cycle and only weak oversight during the implementation stage of the budget cycle (3).
1. “Niger: Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) Assessment,” International Monetary Fund, September 2013, https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2013/cr13285.pdf.
2. “Open Budget Survey 2017: Niger,” International Budget Partnership, 2017,
Compare scores by country
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|Country||12a. Comprehensiveness||12b. Timeliness|
|Algeria||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Angola||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Cameroon||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Egypt||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Ghana||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Jordan||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Kuwait||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Lebanon||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Mali||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Morocco||50 / 100||NEI|
|Niger||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Nigeria||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Oman||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Palestine||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Qatar||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Tunisia||25 / 100||100 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||25 / 100||0 / 100|