Are actual defence purchases made public?
Nigeria score: 0/100
Defence purchases are rarely (if ever) made public, even though an aggregate total spend may be disclosed.
Some defence purchases are not made public, and there is no security justification as to why this information is withheld.
Some defence purchases are not made public. Security or confidentiality is often given as a reason for such secrecy but this is partly, but not fully, justified.
Defence purchases are made public with almost no exceptions. Most of the information listed in score 4 is released, but some information is in aggregate or abbreviated form.
Defence purchases are made public in detail, with almost no exceptions. Very little data from the tender/contract is redacted for national security reasons. For both confidential and non-confidential purchases, there is disclosure of the tender and the contract award. For the contract, there is a description of the item purchased, the winning bidder, the beneficial owners, price paid, whole of lifecycle costs, cost of servicing, costs of parts, and delivery/completion date.
Major and significant defence purchases are sometimes reported in the media. The aggregate spend might also be reported. However, there are significant gaps in the information provided. Some purchases only become available to the public following some corruption scandal (1). It is relevant to note the distinction in practice between “civilian purchases” which are non-special goods as defined in the Public Procurement Act 2007. Concerning the latter, special goods which are defence related expenditures such as defence-related goods and services, there is little information provided to the public (1). “Recently, the Buhari administration purchased a number of TUCANO fighter planes from the United States” (2). The Nigerian military in response to a query on the matter yesterday also confirmed the arrangement, saying, “It could take more than a year for the jets to be delivered to Nigeria. Fighter jets and aircraft are not picked off the shelf; normally, it is after a contract would have been signed and money released that they start manufacturing the aircraft,” said military spokesman Olatokunbo Adesanya (2). “It is unlikely that we would even have them in one year” (2). Adesanya, an Air Vice Marshal and Director, Public Relations and Information at the Nigeria Armed Forces (NAF) headquarters also confirmed that Nigerian government had made full payment to the United States government for the war jets” (2). It is worthwhile to note that although the total price is given it is not broken down into the unit price of each plane neither is there any detail as to the cost of the technical support services tied into the agreement.
1. Interview with employee of the Ministry of Defence (MOD), May 14, 2018.
2. Marcel Mbmalu, “Nigeria takes delivery of 12 Tucano warplanes in 2020,” The Guardian Nigeria, April 23, 2018, https://guardian.ng/news/nigeria-takes-delivery-of-12-tucano-warplanes-in-2020.
61b. Accessible data
Nigeria score: 0/100
Data is rarely, if ever, released in a accessible format.
Data is sometimes released in an accessible format.
Data is almost always released in an accessible format (e.g. excel file) which allows for useful comparisons (e.g. how many tenders a company has won).
Data concerning defence spending is rarely in the public domain. Subjects such as technical specifications and price issues are largely undisclosed; neither is any information about the role and or payment to any intermediaries involved in transactions. Beneficial ownership information of companies involved in arms purchases is also not disclosed. Although the PPA 2007 states in Section 16 (12) that every procuring entity shall maintain paper and electronic copies of the records of procurement proceedings for a period of ten years from the date of contract awards and that the records will be open to inspection by the members of the public. Additionally, Section 16 (14) also provides that all unclassified procurement records shall be open for inspection by the public (1). The provisions of the PPA 2007 are largely not complied within this regard, therefore the formal processes do not meet the minimum standards of transparency (2). The question to what extent the Ministry of Defence complies with this requirement is an open one. For example, these records are not open to inspection by the public. Further, The Office of the Auditor General has failed to submit any reports for over seven years which calls into question whether such record-keeping is available (3). The Bureau of Public Procurement has also announced the adoption of the Open Contracting policy, which will include a searchable database of contractors in the public sector with an E-portal so that contracts awarded can be tracked and monitored. The Open Contracting policy aims to ensure that “timely, current, and routine publication of enough information about the formation, award, execution, performance, and completion of public contracts” is available to the public to prevent corruption in public procurement (1). The question raised by this development is the extent to which the MOD will comply with this development. Will it apply to special defence-related goods and services?
1. Sope Williams-Elegbe, “A Comparative Analysis of the Nigerian Public Procurement Act Against International Best Practice,” International Public Procurement Conference, www.ippa.org/IPPC5/Proceedings/Part3/PAPER3-9.pdf.
2. “This Day, Open Contracting, e-Procurement Eliminate Corruption in Award of Contracts,” Says BPP, This Daily Live, December 17, 2017, https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2017/12/17/open-contracting-e-procurementll-eliminate-corruption-in-award-of-contracts-says-bpp/.
3. Michael Eboh, “Corruption: Open contracting process to commence in March — FG,” Vanguard, February 1, 2017, https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/02/corruption-open-contracting-process-commence-march-fg/.
Compare scores by country
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|Country||61a. Comprehensiveness||61b. Accessible data|
|Albania||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Algeria||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Angola||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Argentina||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Armenia||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Australia||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Azerbaijan||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Bahrain||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Bangladesh||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Belgium||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Botswana||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|Brazil||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Burkina Faso||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Cameroon||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Canada||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Chile||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|China||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Colombia||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Cote d'Ivoire||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Denmark||25 / 100||50 / 100|
|Egypt||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Estonia||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Finland||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|France||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Germany||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Ghana||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Greece||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Hungary||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|India||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Indonesia||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Iran||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Iraq||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Israel||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Italy||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Japan||100 / 100||100 / 100|
|Jordan||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Kenya||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Kosovo||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Kuwait||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Latvia||75 / 100||25 / 100|
|Lebanon||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Lithuania||25 / 100||50 / 100|
|Malaysia||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|Mali||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Mexico||25 / 100||75 / 100|
|Montenegro||25 / 100||50 / 100|
|Morocco||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Myanmar||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Netherlands||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|New Zealand||100 / 100||75 / 100|
|Niger||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Nigeria||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|North Macedonia||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Norway||75 / 100||0 / 100|
|Oman||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Palestine||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Philippines||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Poland||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Portugal||75 / 100||50 / 100|
|Qatar||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Russia||25 / 100||25 / 100|
|Saudi Arabia||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Serbia||25 / 100||50 / 100|
|Singapore||50 / 100||25 / 100|
|South Africa||75 / 100||0 / 100|
|South Korea||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|South Sudan||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Spain||50 / 100||50 / 100|
|Sudan||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Sweden||50 / 100||0 / 100|
|Switzerland||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Taiwan||75 / 100||75 / 100|
|Tanzania||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Thailand||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Tunisia||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Turkey||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|Uganda||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Ukraine||0 / 100||100 / 100|
|United Arab Emirates||25 / 100||0 / 100|
|United Kingdom||50 / 100||100 / 100|
|United States||75 / 100||100 / 100|
|Venezuela||0 / 100||0 / 100|
|Zimbabwe||0 / 100||0 / 100|