Personnel Risk:

Moderate

Score:

62/100

Leadership Behaviour

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Q34 58/100

Do the Defence Ministry, Defence Minister, Chiefs of Defence, and Single Service Chiefs publicly commit, through, for example, speeches, media interviews, or political mandates, to anti-corruption and integrity measures?

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Chiefs/Ministers: Internal communications Score: 50 / 100
There is a commitment to anti-corruption and integrity measures by the Ministry of Defence. During interviews and speeches, officials sometimes declare themselves willing to…
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Chiefs/Ministers: Public commitment Score: 75 / 100
Commitment is publicly stated, though perhaps not strongly. Chiefs and ministers may publicly speak about values or codes of conduct, but fail to mention…
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Unit commanders and leaders Score: 50 / 100
This commitment is reflected in service publications, through regular statements by senior ministry staff and senior armed forces officers about values and conduct. However,…
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Q35 63/100

Are there effective measures in place for personnel found to have taken part in forms of bribery and corruption, and is there evidence that these measures are being carried out?

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Sanctions Score: 100 / 100
Bribery and corruption are not defined offences in the Greek Military Penal Code [1]. However, Article 8 of Law 3978/2011 on Public Procurement of…
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Enforcement Score: 25 / 100
Instances of bribery or corruption are superficially investigated and rarely disciplined, especially regarding military personnel. The Armed Forces, like other organisations, tend to protect…
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Q36 17/100

Is whistleblowing encouraged by the government, and are whistle-blowers in military and defence ministries afforded adequate protection from reprisal for reporting evidence of corruption, in both law and practice?

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Legal provisions Score: 50 / 100
Legislation on whistleblowing and reporting corruption exists but is weak and is not clearly applicable to military personnel, who have a parallel duty of…
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Prioritisation Score: 0 / 100
Whistleblowing is not encouraged by the Government. Consequently, there is no training or information campaigns for military personnel and there is no internal unit…
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Effectiveness Score: 0 / 100
There is little trust among officials and personnel that they would be provided with adequate protection if they reported corrupt activity. Consequently, Greece lacks…
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Q37 0/100

Is special attention paid to the selection, time in post, and oversight of personnel in sensitive positions, including officials and personnel in defence procurement, contracting, financial management, and commercial management?

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Coverage of sensitive (higher-risk) positions Score: 0 / 100
There is no recognition that certain positions may be more open to corruption opportunities than others [1].
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Selection process Score: NA / 100
This indicator is scored ‘Not Applicable’ as the MoD does not practically distinguish such positions from other positions in the Armed Forces.
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Oversight Score: NA / 100
This indicator is scored Not Applicable. The MoD has set up specific criteria for appointments (e.g., years of experience, academic and non-academic qualifications), but…
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Payroll, Promotions, Appointments, Rewards

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Q38 67/100

Is the number of civilian and military personnel accurately known and publicly available?

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Accuracy Score: 50 / 100
The disaggregated number of civilian and military personnel is not publicly known but it is officially collected [1, 2]. This is perceived as a…
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Transparency Score: 50 / 100
Information on the number of civilian and military personnel is updated on monthly basis with about two-month delay. The register contains numbers on permanent…
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Ghost soldiers Score: 100 / 100
The military has not been presented with the problem of ghost soldiers in the last five years [1, 2].
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Q39 75/100

Are pay rates and allowances for civilian and military personnel openly published?

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Pay rates Score: 100 / 100
Pay rates for all civilian and military personnel are published in service publications, disaggregated by rank. Summarised information is made available to military and…
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Allowances Score: 50 / 100
Allowances for all civilian and military personnel are openly published, but without the criteria for eligibility and calculation methods [1, 2]. Such information is…
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Q40 92/100

Do personnel receive the correct pay on time, and is the system of payment well-established, routine, and published?

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Timeliness Score: 100 / 100
Personnel are paid on time, despite the financial crisis [1, 2]. There have been no delays.
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Accuracy Score: 100 / 100
Personnel receive the correct pay through an automated payment system [1] [2].
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Transparency Score: 75 / 100
Military personnel pay rates disaggregated by ranks and allowances have been openly published in part F of Law 4472/2017. The act contains also general…
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Q41 42/100

Is there an established, independent, transparent, and objective appointment system for the selection of military personnel at middle and top management level?

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Formal process Score: 75 / 100
The system for appointment of military personnel at middle and top management applies objective job descriptions and standardised assessment processes, though there is little…
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Scrutiny Score: 0 / 100
There is no external or internal scrutiny of the appointments of military personnel at middle and top management since the relevant law does not…
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Transparency Score: 50 / 100
Information on the appointment process is only partially available on websites or to the public and/or may be incomplete with regards to selection criteria…
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Q42 63/100

Are personnel promoted through an objective, meritocratic process? Such a process would include promotion boards outside of the command chain, strong formal appraisal processes, and independent oversight.

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Formal process Score: 50 / 100
Law 2439/1996 states that the leadership of the Armed Forces is selected by KYSEA: the Government Council for Foreign Affairs and Defence (Article 15).…
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Exceptions Score: 50 / 100
The MoD permits other means of awarding rank, but there are regulations that limit the possible circumstances and place requirements on further progression. Article…
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Comprehensiveness Score: 50 / 100
Promotions for all personnel are publicly available (Presidential Decrees are issued and publicised).[3]. As concerns postings, most of the relevant information is only available…
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Frequency Score: 100 / 100
Details of postings and promotions are published regularly (at least annually) within the system and in advance of their effective date [1, 2].
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Conscription and Recruitment

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Q43 100/100

Where compulsory conscription occurs, is there a policy of not accepting bribes for avoiding conscription? Are there appropriate procedures in place to deal with such bribery, and are they applied?

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Policy Score: 100 / 100
Bribery offences in Greek Penal Code cover offering, giving, receiving, requesting and promising of any item of value to influence the actions of an…
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Sanctions Score: 100 / 100
Possible sanctions include criminal prosecution/incarceration, dismissal and considerable financial penalties for military and civilian personnel [1]. These sactions are for bribery in general and…
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Enforcement Score: 100 / 100
Appropriate sanctions and punishments are applied when bribery occurs, however there have been no recent cases [1]. In 2007, the Greek newspaper To Vima…
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Q44 100/100

is there a policy of refusing bribes to gain preferred postings? Are there appropriate procedures in place to deal with such bribery, and are they applied?

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Policy Score: 100 / 100
Bribery and corruption are defined as offences by law [1]. Article 235 states that “An official who requests or receives, directly or through a…
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Sanctions Score: 100 / 100
Sanctions for soliciting preferred postings include criminal prosecution and dismissal [1, 2], but there are no maximum penalties for imprisonment and fines. Moreover, there…
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Enforcement Score: 100 / 100
Appropriate sanctions are regularly applied when bribery occurs [1]. Junior officers are not allowed to offer gifts to senior officers according to Article of…
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Salary Chain

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Q45 100/100

Are chains of command separate from chains of payment?

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Score: 100 / 100
Chains of command are strictly separated from chains of payment. There are no known examples of exceptions to this [1, 2]. The MOD’s Financial…
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Values and Standards

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Q46 81/100

Is there a Code of Conduct for all military personnel that includes, but is not limited to, guidance with respect to bribery, gifts and hospitality, conflicts of interest, and post-separation activities? Is there evidence that breaches of the Code of Conduct are effectively addressed?

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Code of conduct Score: 50 / 100
There is a code of conduct, however its content is not comprehensive. For example, it addresses corruption issues but is too vague. Article 25…
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Transparency Score: 75 / 100
The code of conduct is effectively distributed to all military personnel. All cadets are obliged to study the code of conduct which is distributed…
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Enforcement Score: 100 / 100
Breaches of the code of conduct are regularly investigated, even if the oversight mechanism is confidential. Cases are¬†pursued where there is evidence of criminal…
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Training Score: 100 / 100
Guidance on the code of conduct is included in induction training for all military personnel at an early stage [1, 2] Consequently, young officers…
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Q47 56/100

Is there a Code of Conduct for all civilian personnel that includes, but is not limited to, guidance with respect to bribery, gifts and hospitality, conflicts of interest, and post-separation activities? Is there evidence that breaches of the Code of Conduct are effectively addressed?

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Code of conduct Score: 50 / 100
There is a code of conduct, however its content are not comprehensive. Article 107 of the code states that “the acquisition of financial benefit…
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Transparency Score: 50 / 100
The code of conduct is distributed to civilian personnel but only on an ad hoc basis [1]. The code of conduct is available to…
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Enforcement Score: 75 / 100
Breaches of the code of conduct are regularly investigated, even if the oversight mechanism is confidential [1, 2]. However, cases may not always be¬†pursued…
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Training Score: 50 / 100
Guidance on the code of conduct is available to all civilian personnel but is not part of induction training [1, 2]. Civilian personnel can…
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Q48 17/100

Does regular anti-corruption training take place for military and civilian personnel?

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Comprehensiveness Score: 25 / 100
Anti-corruption training is superficial in nature and does not address more than values or standards [1]. It has been provided occasionally by NGOs such…
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Regularity Score: 0 / 100
Anti-corruption training is done completely ad hoc, and may only be provided by external parties, such as NGOs [1, 2].
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Coverage of personnel Score: 25 / 100
Relevant training programmes take place in Public Training Institute (INEP), on volunteer involvement. [1]
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Q49 25/100

Is there a policy to make public outcomes of the prosecution of defence services personnel for corrupt activities, and is there evidence of effective prosecutions in recent years?

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Policy Score: 0 / 100
The defence institution does not have a policy according to which outcomes of prosecution are made publicly available [1, 2].
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Transparency Score: 0 / 100
No information on prosecutions of military personnel is publicly available [1].
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Effectiveness Score: 75 / 100
Cases are investigated or prosecuted through formal processes, but there may be cases where undue political influence is attempted [1]. In 2014, for example,…
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Q50 100/100

Are there effective measures in place to discourage facilitation payments (which are illegal in almost all countries)?

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Legal framework Score: 100 / 100
Facilitation payments are strictly and clearly illegal. According to Article 8, “it is prohibited for military and civilian personnel of the Ministry of National…
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Enforcement Score: 100 / 100
Cases have been investigated or prosecuted through formal processes. Independent commentators have expressed little substantive concern over undue political influence [1].
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Prevalence Score: 100 / 100
Facilitation payments in the defence and security sector are very rare [1, 2].
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