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The 3rd line of defence: How audits can help address defence corruption

The theme of this report is the analysis of corruption risks in the financial and economic activities of the defence and security sectors, based on a review of the audit reports and law enforcement bodies’ reports published in the period from January 2010 to October 2011. The intention was to combine the approaches of external, […]

Due diligence and corruption risk in defence industry offsets programmes

The purpose of this report is to shed light on the quality of due diligence in defence offset programmes, and to identify areas of good practice and areas for improvement. It consists of an analysis of one-to-one interviews between the organisations’ person responsible for, or heavily engaged in, offsets, and the TI team. The interviews […]

Military-owned businesses: Corruption risk & reform

One of the areas of corruption risk we are often asked about is commercial businesses that are owned by the military. This is a surprisingly common phenomenon and is open to a wide range of potential abuses. As there is extremely limited information on such businesses, we have taken a first step to provide an […]

Counter corruption reform in post-conflict countries

This report provides a review of the available literature on the challenges faced by three post-conflict countries in their attempts to combat corruption: Rwanda, Liberia and Serbia. It concludes that a combination of thorough legislation, institution-building, training and education programmes, rationalisation measures and decentralisation policies have aided countries in reducing corruption. However, the particular measures […]

The transparency of national defence budgets

A transparent and detailed budget that is available to the public is key to holding governments accountable to their citizens. Unfortunately, in many countries the defence budgeting process remains opaque and far removed from civilian oversight. The report identifies the main aspects of defence budget transparency, including an overview of current practices and the risks […]

Organised crime, corruption and the vulnerability of defence and security forces

While TI-DSP has long considered organised crime to be a major contributor to corruption in the defence and security sector, this report is the programme’s first research foray into this field. It begins by exploring the concrete links between organised crime and corruption, and it highlights how defence and security forces can themselves become involved […]

A review of anti-corruption reform measures in the defence sector in Colombia

This background paper is the result of an open-source research and interviews with current and past state and non-state actors involved in anti-corruption efforts in the Colombian defence sector. Its purpose is to document a reform process that can be examined by other reform-minded nations. The following discussion assesses differing types of anti-corruption measures introduced […]

Codes of conduct in defence ministries and armed forces: What makes a good code of conduct? A multi-country study

Corruption risk in defence and security establishments is a key concern for defence officials and senior military officers, as corruption wastes scarce resources, reduces operational effectiveness and reduces public trust in the armed forces and security services. Part of the solution to these risks is clear guidance on the behaviour expected of senior officers and […]

Building integrity and reducing corruption in defence & security: 20 practical reforms

This is the second edition of the TI-DSP’s handbook. It aims to show busy decision makers how significant progress can be made in tackling corruption risks in defence and security. In it, we recommend ways to diagnose corruption risks and how to lead change in defence and security establishments. We discuss military operations, the procurement […]

Defence offsets: Addressing the risks of corruption & raising transparency

This report addresses one particular area of concern in the defence sector: offsets. Defence offsets are arrangements in which the purchasing government of the importing country obliges the supplying company of the exporting country to reinvest some proportion of the contract in the importing country. Offsets are big business, and yet they are very opaque […]

Corruption & Security Assistance: Recommendations for donor states

Corruption has a corrosive effect on democracy and the legitimacy of state institutions, and is a threat to security and peace. Security assistance should help build the capability of recipient defence and security forces and governments to protect and serve the interests of citizens.

Corruption Threats Assessment in Higher Military Education

Analytical review based on content analysis of information sources.